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Taxonomy is useful if it suggests possible causes generic 100 mg lady era overnight delivery, says something about likely outcome purchase lady era 100mg with amex, and points the way towards rational management discount lady era 100 mg amex. Rigidly adhered to operational criteria (category specified by series of precise inclusion and exclusion statements) carry good reliability (precision) but questionable validity (excessively broad scope) buy discount lady era 100mg online. Classification may help, via the statistical returns from treatment agencies, in the planning of mental health services and legislation. There is evidence that ‘subthreshold’ depression is (a) on a continuum with ‘clinically significant’ depression, (b) that it interferes with health, (c) that it shares risk factors with more severe cases, and (d) that it occurs worldwide. It is debatable whether true (‘entities’) ‘culture-bound’ syndromes exist or whether these are simply 165 universal phenomena modified by local culture. Bhugra ea (2007) suggest that they be viewed as symptom complexes, modified by culture, occurring in response to stressful circumstances. Race, culture and ethnicity may falsely appear to explain research findings when factors such as economics (poverty, debt, education, etc) are not examined. One of the points against someone having a delusion is that they share their belief with their culture. Nevertheless, psychopathology causes considerable personal and socio-economic disability across cultures. A discussion of cultural influences on schizophrenia is to be found in the chapter on schizophrenia. Although not universally corroborated, ethnic minorities may tend to express distress through somatic complaints. According to Bhugra (2008) a culture may be: Pathogenic – causing symptoms Pathoselective – effecting groups in different ways Pathoplastic – modifying symptom presentation Pathoelaborating – reinforced by culture Pathofacilitative – some cultures are prone to certain disorders Pathodiscriminating – culture defines what is deviant Some key terms require definition. Acculturation is the assumption of characteristics of the larger or more advanced society. Assimilation (a bigger step than acculturation) involves total absorption in the larger society. Examples of maladaptation to a host culture include ‘over-identification’ (decry old culture in favour of host practices) and ‘hyper-identification’ (decry host culture in favour of culture of origin). A more comfortable adaptation is represented by ‘inside-outside split’ (private practice of culture of origin 166 and public practice of host culture). Ethnography consists of the examination of written records, folk tales, myths, language, key informants, life histories, questionnaire surveys, psychological tests, and participant observation, all aimed at studying cultural forms. The Hmong of Southeast Asia believe that the 168 soul is always in danger from opportunistic spirit thieves called dabs and that shamans (tvix neebs) who are skilled in spirit rescue oppose such forces; medical interventions break sacred Hmong taboos and the Hmong will only seek medical help as a last resort and with little tolerance for lack of results. Diviners read oracles, interpret dreams, and communicate with the spirit world (incl. African Americans with bipolar or psychotic mood disorders are at increased risk of being misdiagnosed as having schizophrenia, i. Americas Ataque de nervios (Puerto Rican syndrome) is found among Latin American Hispanics, especially older females with relatively little education. It is a socially sanctioned expression of grief or conflict consisting of anxiety and aggressiveness leading on to paresis, loss of consciousness or blanking out of the mind, hyperventilation, shouting and swearing, striking out at others, falling, convulsive movements or lying as if dead, and amnesia. Bilis (muina, colera) is considered to be due to disturbed relationships between bodily hot and cold and between spirit and soma as a result of anger or rage in Latinos. Acute tenseness, screams, shakes, headache, and upset stomach are common, whereas some cases appear to lose consciousness. Bouffée délirante is found in Haiti and West Africa and may resemble brief psychotic disorder. Sudden onset of agitation, aggression, excitement, and confusion characterise his phenomenon, with some cases experiencing hallucinations and paranoid thinking. Evil eye (mal de ojo), mainly found in Latin America (particularly children), refers to illness induced by the stare of a jealous person. By way of comparison, ancient Ireland had its Cailleach, an old hag who was able to transfer mental illness from one person to another. Falling out (blacking out, indisposition) is a dissociative state found among excited or fearful black Americans, Bahamians and Haitians in Miami, consists of sudden collapse, paralysis, and an inability to see or speak. Hearing and understanding are, however, intact, and no evidence is uncovered to suggest an epileptic origin. Ghost sickness among American Indians involves preoccupation with death and the dead. Sufferers may report nightmares, weakness, dread/anxiety/suffocation/futility, confusion, loss of consciousness/faintness/dizziness, anorexia, and hallucinations. The symptoms include headache, anxiety, irrational anger directed towards nearby people, and aimless running and falling. Locura171 of Latin America is a chronic, severe psychosis attributed to heredity or life’s problems in which there are agitation, visual and auditory hallucinations, incoherent speech, inability to adhere to societal rules, and with the potential for violence. Piblokto or pibloktoq (running syndrome) occurs in ‘hysterical’ Eskimo females who may run away or jump into cold water; she is at risk of killing either herself or others, and she has no memory for the event once it is over; it is viewed as representing a dissociative fugue. Susto (chibih, espanto, pasmo, perdida del alma, tripa ida) occurs in the High Andes and takes the form of a sustained melancholia due to worries that the soul may vacate the body. Tabanka is found in Trinidad among males who become depressed and suicidal once deserted by their wives. Some tribesmen, during periods of economic hardship, believe that they have become this ghoul, and they have been known to murder and eat their brethren. Africa172 Amariko, an Ugandan colouration of post-partum psychosis, involves a wish on the mother’s part to eat her baby! Brain fag syndrome (Ori ode or Ode ori in Nigeria) is a prevalent form of somatised anxiety and depression found in association with education in West Africa. It is characterised by a rich variety of somatic symptoms, particularly related to the head (e. It has been suggested that the condition may be a response to excessive expectations in, and cost of, education. The health and wellbeing of a person can be influenced by the actions of a distant other person. Treatment is through the ministrations of a traditional healer (or priest if the victim is Christian) who lifts the curse. Instead one should discover the personal and communal meaning of the experience; the relatives should be interviewed, using an interpreter as necessary. Sangue dormido173 among the Portuguese-speaking Cape Verde islanders (or emigrants from these Atlantic islands) consists of numbness, pain, tremor, stroke, blindness, infection, heart attack, and, in pregnant women, miscarriage. Sar (or zar) is a African Americans receive higher doses of antipsychotics, are more likely to be on a depot neuroleptic, to be involuntarily hospitalised and to be placed in seclusion, and to be over-sedated (in case of violence – even in the absence of such a history) than are Whites. Ufufunyane174 is found among Zulu- and Xhosa- speaking people of southern Africa and is attributed to malicious witchcraft, spirit possession, or poison. Features include pseudolalia175, paralysis, seizures, nightmares with sexual content, trance, and loss of consciousness.

Results: The velocity waveform obtained with sonography Literature buy lady era 100 mg fast delivery, Taichung order 100 mg lady era amex, Taiwan generic lady era 100 mg fast delivery, 4China Medical University order lady era 100mg mastercard, Gradu- produced similar pattern in all three trials. A minimum velocities of ate Institute of Rehabilitation Science, Taichung, Taiwan the bolus measured with sonography was in good agreement with the value with videofuoroscopy. Conclusion: We have developed Introduction/Background: Two consistent sounds with nearly anal- a method of measuring the velocity of the bolus during swallowing ogous frequencies are transmitted to each ear respectively with ste- using ultrasound. Results suggested that velocity waveform analysis reo headphones, the brain incorporates the two signals and forms would be required to obtain the bolus velocity as good indicator. Results: Compared to children in the control enza University of Rome, Orthopedics and Traumatology, Rome, group, standardized test scores of mathematics (0. Conclusion: Ten weeks of frequency following response improved mathematics per- Introduction/Background: Spinal muscular atrophy is a genetic dis- formance and percentile rank of total academic score among school ease of the anterior horn cell with high morbidity rate in childhood. We suggest that school children hear- The Gross Motor Function Measure and Hammersmith functional ing frequency following response improves academic performance scale are measures of motor function successfully used in children and sleep quality among school children. Aquatic therapy is known as an excel- lent way to maintain fexibility,mobility and strength. Izumi (as touching,hearing,contacting the therapist) are included in the 1 aquatic method. Clinical outcomes included measures of mo- Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of tor function (Gross Motor Function Measure and Hammersmith Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sendai, Japan Functional Motor Scale) and pulmonary function (forced vital ca- Introduction/Background: We developed two kinds of short-term pacity). The secondary tasks included a verbal gins to work on fundamental movement skills in the water (such as task (using the words of possible verbal labels for the movement walking), there is a decreased fear of falling, which makes children spans) and a movement task. Water also gives children a tasks and the secondary tasks were counterbalanced across partici- sense of freedom and independence. The aquatic protocol described visual short-term memory for movement with two secondary tasks show as combining fundamental motor skills with fun and games is were not signifcantly different. Conclusion: This study was 1 the frst to report descriptive profles on patients with aphasia in Ma- Cheras Rehabilitation Hospital, Rehabilitation Medicine, Kuala laysia. It is important to have more local data on this population so Lumpur, Malaysia that intensive rehabilitation can be given to the patients. Introduction/Background: To date, there is lack of data on children with speech and language disorders in Malaysia especially those 992 who received intensive paediatric rehabilitation service. All data collected were recorded and analysed based on the demographic characteristics and number of attendance. Introduction/Background: Visual perception is the basis for read- Results: There was 1,065 attendance for speech and language therapy ing, writing, and basic learning. The number of attendance was increasing yearly from the correlation of visual perception and hand function in Korean 8. In Results: There was positive correlation between visual perception 2012, 18 new cases were received, 2013 (36 cases) and 2014 (54 and hand function (r=0. There was no signifcant difference of ing number of attendance and new cases was due to the increase in visual perception and hand function according to their gender. Conclusion: This study provides a preliminary descriptive skills and hand function in preschoolers. We confrmed the hand data on patients attending intensive speech and language therapy in function is different according to the age. Mahmud Mar- 3 Management Department, Tainan, Taiwan, Chi Mei Medical Cent- zuki1 er, Pediatrics, Tainan, Taiwan 1Cheras Rehabilitation Hospital, Rehabilitation Medicine, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Introduction/Background: Prematurity is a risk factor of develop- mental delay. The earlier the prematurity, the more frequently and Introduction/Background: Aphasia is a disorder that affects the more severe the neurodevelopmental delay. The birth weight of the speech, language and communication skills of people after they premature baby, as expected, were lighter than the term baby, and have experienced brain damage such as stroke, head injury, or brain thus growth retardation and developmental delay occurred more tumour. Our study intend to compare the trend of growth clinical characteristics of patients with aphasia documented in Ma- changes and developmental delayed severity over different ages in laysia. This study reports preliminary data of patients with aphasia term and pre-term children. Material and Methods: 2,125 children attending intensive speech and language rehabilitation at Cheras Re- were enrolled in our study from 2011 to 2013. Material and Methods: Data was col- selected as others had data omissions or error. They were divided lected retrospectively from Jan 2015 to Dec 2015 on the new cases into 7 groups according to age. All patients were referred to 11-month-old) to the 6-year-old (72-month-old to 83-month-old). All data collected were recorded and analysed based on the demo- Developmental evaluation involving motor, language, cognition, J Rehabil Med Suppl 55 Poster Abstracts 291 and social-emotions were also diagnosed and recorded as “nor- disciplinary and scientifc study of the skeletal remains. The subgroup analysis re- He was found to have an abnormal left middle fnger with a bra- vealed that the current weight of the prematurity group was lighter chymesophalangia type 2A. Furthermore, there was no difference in severity of de- which is twice the life expectancy of his time. With his multiple abnormalities, he was prob- lighter than the term children group. However, there is no major dif- ably unable to hunt effectively, yet he was obviously given a better ference in the later body weight, body mass index, and the severity role to play and able to lead a long life of a respected person, being of developmental delay. This indicate that the nutritional status of buried with full honours of his time. Something present society with 994 all its sophistication could think about and learn from. Thus, it seems important to characterize these atti- Introduction/Background: Hearing impairment is a common prob- tudes among different categories of medical and paramedical staff. Material and Methods: The study was conducted in the ma- concentration throughout a hearing test. Results: 340 health professionals were included in the by paediatric rehabilitation specialist from Paediatric Rehabilitation study, 12. The average age of loss: 1) Otoscopic Examination; 2) Tympanometry; 3) Behavioral the participants was 29. They had Assessment such as Pure Tone Audiometry and Visual Reinforce- an average of 5. This score was not the demographic parameters such tory Brainstem Response or Auditory Steady State Response test as age, sex, family status or years of experience. After the hearing assessment was done on these patients, we identifed 995 20% of them had hearing loss. Shazura1 This data supports the fact that children with certain congenital or 1National Orthopaedic Centre of Excellence in Research and genetic disorders, as well as children with a history of birth compli- Learning, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lum- cations, are especially prone to hearing loss. His eleven thousand year old skeleton, the oldest complete 1Cheras Rehabilitation Hospital, Rehabilitation Medicine Depart- to be found in South East Asia tells an interesting story. However, we found a negative Malaysia, Family Health Development Division, Putrajaya, Ma- correlation between insuffcient external tibial torsion and fat foot. A total of 19,931 adults aged 1 18 years and above were interviewed by trained enumerators using Arogi Rehabilitation Center, Rehabilitation, Larissa, Greece, 2University Hospital of Larissa, Obstrectics, Larissa, Greece, 3Aro- locally validated Washington Group Questionnaire (short version). The balance between satisfaction and fatigue is higher in rural compared to urban areas.

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Its berrylike fruit (cones) have been used for aquaresis 36 and wound healing since ancient times purchase lady era 100 mg visa. The herb consists of the ripe purchase lady era 100mg amex, fresh or 39 dried berrylike fruit ofJuniperus communisL purchase lady era 100mg visa. In animals buy discount lady era 100mg line, it was shown to have 46 mild antihypertensive and antiexudative effects. The herb consists of the 7 peeled, cut and dried rhizomes (usually with the root parts removed) ofPip- 8 er methysticum G. Anticonvulsive, neuroprotective, narcosis-enhancing, cen- 14 tral muscle relaxant, spasmolytic, analgesic, and local anesthetic effects 15 were observed in animals. The herb should not be taken for more than 3 20 months without the advice of a qualified health care practitioner. Disorders of complex movement with otherwise 27 unimpaired consciousness are initial signs of overdose, followed by fatigue 28 and a tendency to fall asleep. Kava increases the action of substances that affect 29 the central nervous system, e. A few studies yielded some indication of hepatotoxicity in relation to 31 administration of kava. Though this information is limited to date and still 32 awaits scientific evaluation, it is recommended to consider the following when 33 using kava products. It has a low incidence of side effects and its effects have 47 been relatively well investigated. The herb consists of the fresh or 7 dried foliage leaves of Melissa officinalis L. Proc Soc Exp Bio Med 124 (1995), 869; Mohrig A: 32 Melissenextrakt bei Herpes simplex – die Alternative zu Nucleosid- 33 Analoga. Z Phytother 15 (1994), 299–304; Schimmer O, Mauthner H: Poly- 22 methoxylated xanthones from the herb of Centaurium erythraea with 23 strong antimutagenic properties in Salmonella typhimurim. The herb consists of the dried, unpeeled 32 roots and stolons of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. The herb consists of the liquid de- 34 rived by boiling licorice root in hot water and thickening it by concen- 35 tration under vacuum (licorice juice). No clinical data on the 43 efficacy of licorice preparations in respiratory tract disease are available. Therefore, continuous use of 12 licorice preparations should not exceed 6 weeks and the use of licorice fluid ex- 13 tract and commercial licorice products should be medically supervised. Licorice should be used in combina- 21 tion with other expectorant or secretolytic herbs. The plant was originally native to Europe, but was later in- 33 troduced to North America and northern Asia. Depending on its site of origin, the herb may also contain convalla- 40 toxin (Western and Northwestern Europe) or convalloside (Northern and 41 Eastern Europe) or convallatoxin and convallatoxol (Central Europe). The herb increases the contrac- 44 tile force and velocity of the myocardium while extending the relaxation 45 time. It also reduces the heart rate, slows stimulus conduction, and increas- 46 es the excitability of ventricular muscles (positive inotropic, negative 47 chronotropic, negative dromotropic, and positive bathmotropic effects). Overdose can induce nau- 14 sea, vomiting, headaches, stupor and cardiac arrhythmias and can impair 15 color vision. Planta Med 58 (1992), A682; Laufke R: Planta Med 6 (1958), 237; 31 Loew D: Phytotherapie bei Herzinsuffizienz. Mucilage (10%) con- 42 taining arabinogalactans with a uronic acid component), essential oil 43 (0. The tannins, gly- 47 cosides, and essential oil in linden flower have antimicrobial effects in hu- 48 mans. The inhalation of steam enriched with linden flower extract was 49 more effective in improving the symptoms of uncomplicated colds than the 50 inhalation of steam alone (control group). The tea should be drunk while as hot as possi- 6 ble and is best taken during the afternoon. Because of its 40 irritant effects, individuals with nephritis, lower urinary tract inflammation or 41 decreased renal function should not use the essential oil. In fair-skinned indi- 42 viduals, lovage can cause increased sensitivity to ultraviolet light (phototoxic 43 effect of furanocoumarins). Plant Summaries—M ➤ Dosage and duration of use 1 – Tea: Steep 3–5 g of the herb (ca. The herb consists of the ray flowers 23 of the completely mature flower heads of Calendula officinalis L. Anti-inflammatory and immunostimulatory 15 effects have been shown in animals and in vitro. Deutsche Apotheker Ztg 135 (1995), 1147–1149; Wunderer H: 32 Zentral und peripher wirksame Antitussiva: eine kritische Übersicht. The herb consists of the dried, 38 chopped, peeled, or unpeeled roots of Althaea officinalis L. In animal experiments, the herb was found to 24 have a positive effect on the healing of peptic ulcers and to increase smooth- 25 muscle tone. This, in turn, increases the 16 rate of ribosomal protein synthesis and enhances the regenerative capacity 17 of the liver. Arzneim Forsch/Drug Res 45 (1995), 39 61–64; Tuchweber B et al: J Med 4 (1973), 327. The herb significantly improves the 7 symptoms of chronic joint disease by triggering cutivisceral reflexes and 8 improves the quality of life of cancer patients. Wheal forma- 32 tion and elevated body temperature are considered to be signs of the herb’s 33 immunostimulatory effects. Deutsche Apotheker 39 Ztg 136 (1996), 4330–4332; Beuth J, Lenartz D, Uhlenbruck G: Lektionop- 40 timierter Mistelextrakt. Z Naturforsch C52 (1–2) (1997), 42–44; Schmidt S: Unkonventionelle 46 Heilverfahren in der Tumortherapie. The herb consists of the aerial 4 parts (seeds or foliage leaves) ofTropaeolum majusor therapeutically effec- 5 tive preparations of the same. Isothiocyanates mainly accumulate 15 in and are eliminated via the respiratory air and urine. Prolonged intensive contact with the fresh 32 plant can cause skin irritation, as it has a slight potential for sensitization. Br J Dermatol, 200 (1996) 221–228; Franz G: 40 Kapuzinerkresse (Tropaeolum majus L. Local anesthetic and analgesic effects have been 19 observed in animals by external use of the tincture. Significant antirheumatic and 21 antiarthritic effects have been observed in studies with large numbers of 22 patients. An adequate intake of fluids (at least 2 32 liters per day) is essential for aquaresis.

Quite evidently with such gimcrack procedures order lady era 100 mg overnight delivery, the microbiological findings were of no evidential value at all; any one of the people handling the tablets could have been responsible for their faecal contamination buy generic lady era 100mg on-line. That is to say that during her one test generic lady era 100 mg otc, she had used in dilution all the material of the two tablets cheap lady era 100mg without prescription, so being unable to carry out any control tests. More importantly, she left no material available for the defence to carry out the same tests had they so wished. Although it is not possible to know what evidential weight was given to the finding of faecal material in, or on, two of the tablets prescribed by Dr Chalmers, there can be no doubt that as in the case of Yves Delatte, the power of such evidence was bound to be immensely prejudicial to the case of Davis and Chalmers. In the end, the charge that Davis and Chalmers had prescribed potentially harmful herbal tablets was dismissed. It was Duncan Campbell and Nick Partridge, giving evidence on behalf of the Terrence Higgins Trust, who added most weight to such charges. This after all was the only kind of evidence they could give: neither Campbell nor Partridge was a clinician of any kind and they would have been hard pressed to give serious scientific evidence. They were, however, the fulcrum of the prosecution case, because they together with Mr X were the complainants. Campbell gave evidence to the fact that a number of newspaper articles had appeared about Ayur-Vedic medicine; they were not ordinary newspaper articles, contended Campbell, but advertisements and promotions. One is that the two main articles were written by reputable journalists, in reputable 48 newspapers. Campbell and Partridge, despite their lack of training and clinical experience, appear to be convinced of the same arguments. Langdale also explained to the hearing that there were two indices for a therapy, its concentration to produce a therapeutic effect and its concentration to produce a toxicological effect. Mr Langdale: Is there any way in which liquorice could cause severe stomach pains? One knows from personal experience that if you over-dose with Pontefract 51 cakes or liquorice you can get diarrhoea. In the ordinary box of Bassetts Liquorice All Sorts, for example, one is getting about, what, 290 mg of glyceuhetinic acid per 100 g of liquorice, is that right? Let us just assume that the same analyses apply, and I suggest that you are not going to get more than about 1. Professor Turner : No, I would entirely agree that the cases that have been described have generally been in patients who have eaten large quantities of liquorice-containing confectionery, such as Pontefract cakes and black liquorice and I cannot give you a figure for 52 the total quantities eaten. In fact that was not true, my policy was that I wrote to their doctors and told their doctors that they should continue taking whatever other treatments they were taking. Its proceedings, though able to terminate the professional career of any doctor standing before it, are shot through with the faults and prejudices of a barrack-room mock trial. It seems incredible that the General Medical Council could accept the evidence of a lay witness like Campbell, over that of an experienced consultant like Dr Gazzard. Perhaps the most bizarre charge faced by Davis and Chalmers was that neither doctor was properly qualified in Ayur-Vedic medicine. On what grounds did the General Medical Council consider that it was qualified to hear this issue? The whole tenor of the hearing from its first day was one of prejudice against the very plausibility of Ayur-Vedic medicine. Yet in order to prove that Davis and Chalmers were not properly qualified, the prosecution was forced to bring an expert in Ayur-Vedic medicine to testify. The prosecution witness brought to give evidence that Chalmers and Davis were not qualified to practise Ayur-Vedic medicine was Dr Dominik Wujastyk. Surprisingly, Wujastyk was not a doctor of medicine but a PhD in Sanskrit and the Associate Curator of the South Asian Collections, at the Wellcome Institute for the History of Medicine. Wujastyk had tried to phone Dr Davis on a number of occasions over the year before the hearing. Wujastyk worked in the same building and the same department as Caroline Richmond. I think we should make it clear — obviously since Wellcome is a well-known name — are you in any way connected with Wellcome plc or the Wellcome Foundation? The evidence of Dr Wujastyk about qualifications cut to the very heart of the case. Even the quality papers embellished their reporting with emotive expressions, and homed in on the finding of Enterococcus faecium on the two tablets. It was, however, the Terrence Higgins Trust and Nick Partridge in particular that continued to make capital out of the downfall of Davis and Chalmers for some period after the end of the case. Appearing with him on the programme was the founder and President of the American National Council Against Health Fraud, William Jarvis. In this fictionalised version of events, Davis and Chalmers are guilty of the manslaughter of a patient. Another link with the National Council Against Health Fraud in the case of Davis and Chalmers surfaced in an article in the San Francisco Bay Guardian of December 18th 1991. By far the most damaging article about Davis and Chalmers appeared in the London 60 Evening Standard on March 27th 1992. This article, although written by previously unknown investigative reporter Keith Dovkants, had Duncan Campbell stamped between every line. The truth collapses as it is pressed into a shape which will fit the institutional convenience of the medical establishment. The enemies of truth ensure that the victims of their schemes are hauled before the world and the skeleton shaken at regular intervals to keep a distorted message strong in the mind of possible followers. Legal and regulatory infrastructures, scaffolded by ideology and propaganda, have immense power to assassinate and then bury reputations. From such an assassination and such a burial there is no resurrection, for even if the name is cleared, the stigma remains like a boulder blocking entry back into social life. The cases of Sandra Goodman, Monica Bryant and Yves Delatte are perhaps the clearest illustration that Campbell had a hidden agenda when he carried out his wide-ranging attacks in 1989. Goodman, Bryant and Delatte are, all three, intelligent and sincere people, individuals who would had there been an opportunity, have gladly worked with National Health Service doctors in testing the various health products with which they were involved. When Campbell criminalised these people, using the pages of the New Statesman and 62 Society, he did a good job. The principal preparation that Monica Bryant and Sandra Goodman were working on, was proscribed by the Department of Health. Sandra Goodman Sandra Goodman PhD was never a member of the complementary medicine circuit. She did not know anything about germanium, until Monica Bryant asked her to make an appraisal of all the available literature on it. By the time that I interviewed her in 1991, she was aware that she had detonated a considerable furore, first with 63 her research and later with her book on germanium.

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