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Various biological events may trigger psoriasis estrace 1 mg for sale, such as streptococcal or viral infecton 2 mg estrace free shipping, an emotonal crisis or pregnancy 2mg estrace with mastercard. Psoriasis vulgaris (chronic plaque psoriasis) is the most common form of the conditon purchase estrace 2mg without a prescription, usually afectng extensor surfaces of the limbs and the scalp. Gutate psoriasis, commonly seen in children, is ofen caused by a streptococcal infecton; lesions may disappear following antmicrobial treat- ment. The conditon is also known to resolve spontaneously but more commonly transforms into chronic plaque psoriasis. Dithranol restores the normal rate of epidermal cell prolif- eraton and keratnizaton, and localized psoriasis vulgaris can frequently be cleared by daily applicatons for a period of 2 to 4 weeks. A short contact method of applicaton causes litle, if any, irritaton or staining of normal skin, and is partcularly useful for outpatent management. Good results are ofen obtained when daily applica- tons or baths are combined with exposure to ultraviolet light or sunlight. Emollients containing low concentratons of salicylic acid (1-2%) are a useful adjunct to treatment, partcularly where there is thick scaling. A preparaton containing urea 10%, which has moisturizing, keratolytc and antmitotc propertes, may prove more efectve than an emollient. A mild cortcosteroid such as hydrocortsone may be used on the face and fexures, whereas a potent cortcosteroid such as betamethasone is most appropriate for the scalp, hands and feet. However, when extensive areas of the body surface are involved or when there is erythrodermic psoriasis, sufcient may be absorbed to cause adrenal suppression; also rebound ofen occurs afer stopping treatment, resultng in a more unstable form of psoriasis. Actnic Keratosis: The lesions of actnic keratosis are distributed primarily over sun-exposed areas. Horny growths, which are ofen covered by light brown scales, are usually asymptomatc but can be disfguring. They respond to light cautery and cryosurgery or topical applicaton of 5-fuorouracil over a three-week period. They may regress spontaneously at any tme within months or years of their frst appearance; however, partcularly in immunosup- pressed patents, they may spread and be difcult to cure. Many common, plane and plantar warts can reasonably be lef untreated, but painful or unsightly lesions generally respond to applicaton of preparatons containing salicylic acid. Where available, cryotherapy using liquid nitrogen applied with a coton-tp or a spray is highly efectve; however, freezing the skin can produce temporary or permanent depigmentaton (partcularly on dark skin), and should be used with cauton. Anogenital warts are usually transmited by sexual contact; they should always be treated, although they frequently recur, because of the increased risk of cervical cancer. Podo- phyllum resin, a caustc antmitotc agent, may be applied to small external lesions. The risk of extensive local necrosis and of systemic toxicity excludes the use of podophyllum resin on larger surfaces. Where podophyllum is contraindicated or inefectve surgical removal, electrocautery, cryosurgery and laser therapy are possible optons. Topical applicaton of 5-fuorouracil has been reported to be of value in resistant cases but the treatment is expensive and efcacy is stll under investgaton. Coaltar* Pregnancy Category-C Indicatons Chronic psoriasis, either alone or in combinaton with exposure to ultraviolet light; eczema. Dose Psoriasis: apply 1 to 4 tmes daily, preferably startng with lower strength preparaton. Adverse Efects Irritaton; photosensitvity reactons; rarely, hypersensitvity, skin; hair and fabrics discoloured; stnging. Contraindicatons Hypersensitvity; avoid use on face; acute eruptons; excessively infamed areas. Precautons Irritant-avoid contact with eyes and healthy skin; not to be used in acute psoriasis; pregnancy (Appendix 7c). Adverse Efects Local irritaton; discontnue use if excessive erythema or spread of lesions; conjunctvits following contact with eyes; staining of skin; hair; and fabrics; stains skin. Dose Actnic keratosis, genital warts: apply thinly 1 to 2 tmes daily untl marked infammatory response occurs (usually 3 to 4 weeks); healing may require further 2 months afer completon of treatment. Adverse Efects Local infammatory and allergic reactons; rarely, erythema multforme; photosensitvity reactons during and for up to 2 months afer treatment; eye irritaton. For injecton: store protected from light in a single dose container at a temperature not exceeding 30⁰C. Isotretnoin Pregnancy Category-X Indicatons Resistant and severe nodulocystc acne, dry scaly surface, motling, wrinkles, rough and leathery texture, acute promyelocytc leukemia, actnic keratoses. Duraton of treatment: 15-20 week; may be discontnued if number of cysts is reduced by >70% (whichever is sooner). Patents with very severe acne or acne evident on the body instead of face: max dose of 2 mg/kg daily. Adverse Efects Dryness of skin and mucous membranes, pruritus, epistaxis, cheilits, erythema, sometmes Stevens-Johnson syndrome, paresthesias, anxiety, conjunctvits, paronychia, rise in serum lipids, pancreatts, hypervitaminosis (however it is less than that of tretnoin), edema, hair thinning and intracranial tension leading to nausea and vomitng, hearing impairment, hepatotoxicity, visual impairment. Psychiatric side efects such as depression, suicidal tendencies and psychotc symptoms can occur frequently in adolescents and young adults. Dose Hyperkeratotc skin disorders: apply once daily, startng with lower strength preparatons; gradually increase strength untl satsfactory response obtained. Precautons Diabetes mellitus or if peripheral blood circulaton impaired; avoid contact with eyes; mouth; and mucous membranes; avoid applicaton to large areas; iritated; loose/ infected skin; pregnancy (Appendix 7c). Urea Pregnancy Category-D Indicatons Hydratng agent and keratolytc for dry, scaling and itching skin conditons. Precautons Avoid applicaton to face or broken skin; avoid contact with eyes; pregnancy (Appendix 7c). Adverse Efects Transient stnging and local irritaton; irritaton to eyes; skin and respiratory tract. It is readily transmited from person to person; therefore the entre household must be treated at the same tme to prevent reinfecton. It is not necessary to take a bath before treatment with an acaricide, but all clothing and bedding should be washed to prevent reinfecton. It must be applied to all skin surfaces, from the scalp to the soles of the feet, avoiding contact with the eyes; it is too irritant for use on chil- dren. Permethrin is less irritant and more efectve than benzyl benzoate, but also more expensive; it may be used on children. Young infants can be treated with a cream containing precipi- tated sulphur 6-10% applied once daily for one week. Pediculosis: Pediculosis of the head and body is caused by Pediculus humanus capits and Pediculus humanus corporis respectvely; pubic lice (crab lice) infestatons are caused by Pthirus pubis, which may also afect the eye lashes and brows. All are trans- mited by person to person contact, and may also contaminate clothing and bedding. All members of the afected household (and sexual contacts) must be treated at the same tme, and clothing and bedding should be washed or exposed to the air; in head lice infestatons, hair brushes and combs should also be disinfected. Head and body lice are readily treated with permethrin; malathion is efectve against pubic lice. Dose Adult- Scabies: apply from neck down at night for 2 nights; on each occasion wash of afer at least 24 h. Pediculosis: apply to afected area and wash of 24 h later; further applicatons possibly needed afer 7 and 14 days.

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Poor adherence can fall into one of the following patterns where the patient: » Takes the medication very rarely (once a week or once a month); » Alternates between long periods of taking and not taking their medication e buy estrace 2mg free shipping. Although there is no gold standard order estrace 2 mg without a prescription, the current consensus is that a multi method approach that includes self report be adopted such as that below estrace 1 mg sale. Attitudes and beliefs » The condition is misunderstood or » Remind patients that they denied discount 2mg estrace otc. Social and economic » May lack support at home or in the » Encourage participation in community treatment support programs. Healthcare team related » Little or no time during the visit to » Encourage patient to ask provide information. Treatment related » Complex medication regimens » If possible reduce treatment (multiple medications and doses) complexity can be hard to follow. Although many of these recommendations require longer consultation time, this investment is rewarded many times over during the subsequent years of management. For a patient to consistently adhere to long term pharmacotherapy requires integration of the regimen into his or her daily life style. The successful integration of the regimen is informed by the extent to which the regimen differs from his or her established daily routine. Where the pharmacological proprieties of the medication permits it, the pharmacotherapy dosing regimen should be adapted to the patient’s daily routine. For example, a shift worker may need to take a sedating medicine in the morning when working night shifts, and at night, xxiv when working day shifts. If the intrusion into life style is too great alternative agents should be considered if they are available. This would include situations such as a lunchtime dose in a school-going child who remains at school for extramural activity and is unlikely to adhere to a three times a regimen but may very well succeed with a twice daily regimen. Towards concordance when prescribing Establish the patient’s » occupation » daily routine » recreational activities; » past experiences with other medicines » expectations of therapeutic outcome Balance these against the therapeutic alternatives identified based on clinical findings. Any clashes between the established routine and life style with the chosen therapy should be discussed with the patient in such a manner that the patient will be motivated to a change their lifestyle. Note: Education that focuses on these identified problems is more likely to be successful than a generic approach toward the condition/medicine. Education points to consider » Focus on the positive aspects of therapy whilst being encouraging regarding the impact of the negative aspects and offer support to deal with them if they occur. Note Some patient’s lifestyles make certain adverse responses acceptable which others may find intolerable. Sedation is unlikely to be acceptable to a student but an older patient with insomnia may welcome this side effect. However once the interval is decreased to 3 times a day there is a sharp drop in adherence with poor adherence to 4 times a day regimens. Patients with disease limited to the rectum do not require surveillance colonoscopy. Loperamide should not be used during the acute flare due to the risk of toxic megacolon. Failure to respond to 10 days of intravenous corticosteroids is an indication for an emergency colectomy. Local disease: proctosigmoiditis Patients with limited disease rarely require inpatient treatment. Patients with recurrent severe attacks to maintain remission: • Azathioprine, oral, 2 mg/kg daily. This is a medical emergency and if the colonic dilation does not resolve within 24 hours an emergency colectomy is indicated, as the risk of perforation is high. This is a transmural inflammatory condition affecting mainly the distal ileum or colon, but may affect the entire gastro-intestinal tract. After terminal ileal resections, to reduce diarrhoea due to bile salt malabsorption: • Cholestyramine, oral, 2–8 g daily. Emergency management at specialist facility will include: » resuscitation with parenteral fluids; » blood transfusions; » corticosteroids; » antibiotics; and » nasogastric suction as indicated. Peri-anal disease There is evidence of recurrence on withdrawal of therapy and prolonged treatment may be indicated. There is a decreased frequency of bowel action and patients should be assessed individually. Constipation may have many causes: » incorrect diet (fibre and fluid); » certain drugs; » lack of exercise; » metabolic; » pregnancy; » endocrine; » old age; » neurogenic; » psychogenic disorders; » lower bowel abnormalities; » chronic use of enemas and » ignoring the urge; laxatives; » cancer of the bowel; » behavioural problems in children. Stimulant laxatives For short term use only, except in the elderly where long-term treatment may be indicated: • Sennosides A and B, oral, 7. Polyethylene glycol-based purges For acute bowel preparation or for chronic constipation on specialist advice. Complications that may develop in severe disease are strictures, ulceration, Barrett’s oesophagus and adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus. Recurrence of symptoms After endoscopic confirmation of disease: • Omeprazole, oral, 20 mg daily. There is no convincing evidence that long-term treatment of Barrett’s oesophagitis reduces dysplasia or progression to malignancy. Antimicrobial therapy The administration of prophylcatic antibiotics to patients with severe necrotising pancreatitis prior to the diagnosis of infection is not recommended. In most patients this is a chronic progressive disease leading to exocrine and endocrine insufficiency. Small frequent meals, and restricted fat intake – reduces pancreatic secretion and pain. When weight loss is not responding to exogenous enzymes and diet, consider supplementation with medium chain triglycerides. This should be considered in patients who develop worsening pain, new onset diabetes or deterioration in exocrine function. Malabsorption Start treatment when >7 g (or 21 mmol) fat in faeces/24 hours while on a 100 g fat/day diet. Auto-immune hepatitis Patients with hepatitis persisting with negative viral markers and no hepatotoxins. Thereafter, to attain 2–3 soft stools a day: • Lactulose, oral, 10–30 mL 8 hourly. Exclude infection, high protein load, occult bleed, sedatives and electrolyte disturbances. Large-volume ascites Large volume paracentesis is the method of choice as it is faster, more effective and has fewer adverse effects compared to diuretics. Oesophageal varices To reduce the risk of bleeding: • Propranolol, oral 10–20 mg 12 hourly. Hepatitis A and E only cause acute hepatitis, whilst B and C cause acute and chronic hepatitis. All exposure incidents must be adequately documented for possible subsequent compensation.

Close the tank and allow to stand at 20° to 25° estrace 1mg with amex, unless the mobile-phase has ascended to the marked lines buy estrace 2 mg on line. Remove the plate and dry it in a current of cold air until all traces of solvent has disappeared and spray with a solution of sodium nitrite buy 2 mg estrace overnight delivery. Expose the plate to ammonia vapour for a few minutes and allow to stand in daylight for about 1 hour estrace 1mg without a prescription. Observations : In the chromatogram obtained with solution (1), there is no reddish orange spot with an Rf value of 0. The test in not valid unless there is a clearly visible spot in the chromatogram obtained with solution (2). Immediately before use, mix 2 ml of solution A, 20 ml of glacial acetic acid and 40 ml of ethyl acetate. Observations : Any secondary spot in the chromatogram obtained with solution (1) is not more intense than the spot in the chromatogram obtained with solution (2). Develop the plate in the above mobile-phase such that the solvent front is allowed to ascend only 10 cm above the line of application. After removal of the plate, dry it at 100 °C to 105 °C for 15 minutes, allow to cool and spray with dilute potassium iodobismuthate solution until spots appear. Observations : Any secondary spot in the chromatogram obtained with solution (1) is not more intense than the spot obtained with solution (2), and not more than one such spot is more intense than the spot obtained with solution (3). After removal of the plate, allow it to cool dry in air until the solvents have evaporated, heat at 105 °C for 10 minutes, cool and spray with alkaline tetrazolium blue solution. Glutamic Acid Materials Required : Silica gel-G ; mobile-phase (glacial acetic acid : water : butan-1-ol : : 20 : 20 ; 20 ; 60) : 100 ml ; solution (1) : dissolve 0. After removal of the plate, allow it to dry in air, spray with ninhydrin solution and heat at 100° to 105 °C for 15 minutes. Jork, Thin Layer Chromatography : A Laboratory Handbook’, New York, Springer Verlag, 1969. Its phenomenal growth at almost logarithmic pace may be attributed to its unparalleled potential in resolving components of a complex mixture. Gas chromatography fundamentally is a separation technique that not only essentially provides prima facie indentification of a compound but also caters for quantitative estimation after due calibration. Gas chromatography makes use, as the stationary phase, a glass or metal column filled either with a powdered adsorbent or a non-volatile liquid coated on a non-adsorbent powder. The mobile-phase consists of an inert-gas loaded with the vapourised mixture of solutes flowing through the stationary phase at a suitable temperature. In the course of the passage of the vapour of the sample through the column, separation of the components of the sample occurs in two ways, namely : (a) due to adsorption effects-i. Martin and Synge in 1952, became the Nobel Laureates for their excellent, innovative research work on the development of partition chromatography. These different theories will be discussed briefly in the sections that follows : 29. Thus, the ‘theoretical’ plate is the portion of the column wherein the solute is in complete equilibrium with the mobile and the stationary phase. Thus, the distribution of a solute after ‘n’ equilibrium (plates) may be defined by the expansion of the binomial in Eq. It is usually expressed by the following expression : 2 2γD 8kd′ f G h = 2λd + + 2 2 u... Based on a statistical concept the virtual spreading of a ‘solute band’ may be considered by virtue of molecular diffusion, mass transfer, and Eddy diffusion (i. Thus, the plate height ‘h’ employing the random walk approach may be expressed as in Eq. In actual practice, there are two basic considerations that prevail upon in gas chromatography, namely : (a) Retention : The phenomena affecting retention or hold up on the column, sometimes referred to as the thermodynamic effect, and (b) Column Efficiency : The phenomena affecting column efficiency or the kinetic aspect that governs the tendency for a particular solute band to ‘broaden’ as it traverses through the column. However, the resolution or extent of separation of any two peaks from a column is solely dependent upon both retention and column efficiency. Although separations may be caused by elution, frontal and displacement analyses, yet the elution technique is the most common. Precisely, a sample is injected into the carrier-gas as a ‘plug’ of vapour that is swept into the head of the packed chromatographic column. Separation of components that comprise the sample results from a difference in the multiple forces by which the column materials tend to retain each of the components. Irrespective of the nature of the retention that is due to adsorption, solubility, chemical binding, polarity or molecular filtration, the column does retain some components longer than others. When in the gas phase the components are moved toward the column outlet, they are selectively retarded by the station- ary phase. Consequently, all components pass through the column at varying speeds and emerge in the inverse order of their retention by the column materials. Here, the individual components register a series of signals that appear as a succession of peaks above a base line on the chromatogram. These components shall be discussed briefly in the sections that follow : Figure 29. The reference sample also passes through the detector oven into the column which is maintained by column-oven heat control device. The detector picks up the signals of the sample as well as the reference substance one after the other which is duly amplified and the signal current recorded on a strip-chart recording device or other suitable means. After passing through the detector oven the vapours of the sample plus the carrier gas leaves the equipment through an exhaust pipe. Note : Ultrapure N2 for use in flame-ionization devices may be generated by the Serfass Apparatus available commercially. Demerits are its reactivity with unsaturated compounds and hazardous explosive nature, He : It has an excellent thermal conductivity, low density, inertness and it permits greater flow rates. It is highly expensive, N2 : It offers reduced sensitivity and is inexpensive, and Air : It is employed only when the atmospheric O2 is beneficial to the detector separation. Importantly, the operating efficiency of a chromatograph is directly dependent on the maintenance of a highly constant carrier gas-flow-rate. Carrier gas passes from the tank through a toggle value, a flow meter, a few feet of metal capillary restrictors, and a 0-4 m pressure gauze. The flow rate could be adjusted by means of a needle value mounted on the base of the flow meter and is controlled by the capillary restrictors. On the downstream side of the pressure regulator, a tee (T) may split the flow and direct it to the sample and the reference side of the detector. A good and ideal sample injection system should be the one where the sample must not— (i) be decomposed at the point of injection, (ii) create pressure surges, and (iii) undergo fractionation, condensation or adsorption of components during the course of transfer to the column. The sample is vapourized as a ‘plug’ and carried right into the column by the respective carrier gas. Gas from this bypass-capillary-loop is introduced right into the column by sliding or rotating a valve to connect the loop with the stream of carrier gas. The general requirements of a liquid phas are : • Differential partitioning of sample components, • Reasonably good solvent properties for components, • High thermal stability, and • A lower vapour pressure at the column temperature. Polyglycols (Carbowaxes) Amine, Nitrile, Ether, Ketone, Ester, 100-200 Alcohol, Aromatics, 4. Importantly, the temperature of the column oven must be controlled by a system that is sensitive enough to changes of 0.

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Nonbarbiturate Sedatives and Calmatives An increasing variety of nonbarbiturate sedatives have been compounded in recent years 1 mg estrace amex. Although they are in wide use cheap estrace 1 mg without a prescription, no experimental studies have compared these drugs to the barbiturates as adjuncts to interviewing individuals buy estrace 1 mg on line, either to relieve emotional disturbances or to obtain consciously withheld information 2mg estrace with mastercard. A list of the chemical and trade name of some of these drugs may be worth including as an illustration of their variety and for heuristic purposes: ethchlorvynol (placidyl), glutethimide (doriden), methyprylon (noludar), methylparafynol (dormison), captodramin (suvren), oxanamide (quiactin). Administered intravenously to nonpsychotic individuals, researchers have found amphetamine to produce a "push": an outpouring of ideas, emotions, memories, etc. It is of diagnostic help with psychiatric cases by itself (24, 49, 90, 95, 121), or following an intravenous barbiturate (37, 39, 70, 113). It is widely marketed and used in combination with a barbiturate as a mild stimulant drug for patients having neuroses and neurotic character problems. These authors claim, perhaps extravagantly, that such a psychopath is powerless under the influence of methamphetamine. Once the drug takes effect, they hold, the tempo of productivity and the insurmountable urge to pour out -119- speech gives the liar no time to think. They also claim that functional aphasics can be expected to recover their speech under the influence of intravenous methamphetamine. It should be noted again that amphetamine and its derivatives are among the main drugs that have been employed in well-designed and controlled studies, showing that the effects of drugs are variable and influenced by personality differences (83, 84, 126). In reaction to the "inner push" of ideas, emotions, and speech, some normal subjects report mild euphoria, but others report tension and displeasure. The occurrence of the predominant pharmacologic effects of this drug depends to some extent on the typical personality of the subject (57). Like amphetamine, pipradrol in single, small doses improves the performance of normal subjects in tracking tests (107). It has an advantage over amphetamine in having fewer undesirable side effects, particularly on the cardiovascular system. This drug has been used in the treatment of patients with "simple depressions" (3, 44, 120). Pharmacologic effects are noticeable in mentally ill patients, but more than a transient therapeutic effect has not been established. No studies are reported on the use of this pharmacologic agent for psychotherapeutic or interview purposes. In psychiatric practice this drug has been reported to exert beneficial effects on psychotic patients receiving reserpine (a rauwolfia tranquilizer), which sometimes induces manifest depressive reactions in patients as a side effect (45). But a double-blind, placebo-controlled study has not found ritalin to be of any benefit in chronic schizophrenia (29). The utility for interrogation purposes of the analeptic properties of this drug, as compared to those of other stimulants, such as amphetamine, cannot be evaluated from existing information. Its analeptic features were first noted in chronic debilitated tuberculous patients who were -120- receiving the drug as part of an experimental chemotherapeutic regimen (35). It has been said to improve the performance of normal individuals, enabling them to work more energetically and more effectively, and to need less sleep. Iproniazid has been used in the treatment of mental depression (97) with encouraging results. Definitive well-controlled studies, however, have been reported for neither normal subjects nor mentally ill patients. Several instances of fatal toxic hepatitis have occurred when doses over 150 mg a day were given. Nevertheless, the advent of drugs of such a presumably powerful therapeutic effect in depression, owing either to psychologic conflicts or secondary to chronic somatic illness, opens up further areas of exploration of relevance to the present topic. Hallucinogenic or Psychotomimetic Drugs It has been common knowledge for centuries that many drugs may modify the behavior of man to the extent of producing psychotic behavior. The interests of psychiatrists in these phenomena have stemmed largely from the supposed resemblance of these psychoses to schizophrenia, because of the time-honored, though as yet unproven, hypotheses (11) that schizophrenia is due to a "toxin. Two psychotomimetic drugs are discussed briefly here as examples, from the viewpoint of their psychopharmacologic effects and their possible pertinence to interrogation procedures. Mescaline has also been studied as a potential diagnostic and therapeutic adjunct with psychiatric patients. Cattell (27) found mescaline to be a useful drug in investigating personality structure, -121- but of no value in the therapy of psychiatric patients. New psychodynamic material was gained from the first two groups, but relatively little from the last group. Cattell reasoned that the new material obtained in the mescaline state had been condensed and repressed in the drug-free state. Mescaline in general (63, 65, 66, 110) has been found to produce perceptual distortions and hallucinations, accentuation of affective experiences, and increased psychotic manifestations. In some patients contact and communication were increased and in others decreased. Hoch (63) noted that mescaline in "normals" produced more of an "organic reaction" with some schizophrenic features, as compared to its effect in schizophrenics and latent schizophrenics where mescaline produced more complete schizophrenic disorganization. Hoch also emphasized that mescaline produced a falling off in intellectual functioning. These articles are typical of the reports on the psychopharmacologic effects of mescaline. When interrogators extrapolate clinical psychiatric observations of this kind to the problems of interrogation, mescaline might serve their purposes in attempting to create an atmosphere of fear or terror in the informant and the illusion of magical overpowering omnipotence about himself. After such a transient state has been created, the susceptible informant might be induced subsequently to reveal information. The perceptual and cognitive disturbances produced by the drug make it unsuitable for obtaining undistorted information while the source is under its influence. From the viewpoint of the informant, the creation of a transient psychotic state by the ingestion of mescaline or lysergic acid might offer him some temporary protection against being successfully interrogated. An interrogator is not likely to consider an individual in a psychotic state a suitable candidate for providing reliable and useful information, at least until the drug effect wears off. They noted that the drug transiently increased the mental activity of their patients 30 to 60 rain after ingestion. The effect was a transitory toxic state in which repressed material came forth "sometimes with vivid realism" and emotional expression. Alterations were observed in thinking, speech, emotions, mood, sensation, time perception, ideation, and neurologic signs. The reaction was typical of an exogenous toxic state, simulating a schizophrenic reaction. The reaction was not specific and the extent to which it was dependent on the basic personality was not determined. An interesting, unexplained phenomenon was that only two out of the sixteen cases had the expected bizarre hallucinatory experiences. The conclusions reached on mescaline hold equally for the possible applications of this drug to -123- interrogation.

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