By M. Avogadro. University of Memphis.

The profound drive or craving to use substances or engage in apparently rewarding behaviors cheap 15mg mentax visa, which is seen in many patients with addiction purchase mentax 15 mg with mastercard, underscores the compulsive or avolitional aspect of this disease mentax 15mg. This is the connection with “powerlessness” over addiction and “unmanageability” of life buy discount mentax 15 mg on line, as is described in Step 1 of 12 Steps programs. Features of addiction include aspects of a person’s behaviors, cognitions, emotions, and interactions with others, including a person’s ability to relate to members of their family, to members of their community, to their own psychological state, and to things that transcend their daily experience. August 15, 2011 Page 3 Behavioral manifestations and complications of addiction, primarily due to impaired control, can include: a. Excessive use and/or engagement in addictive behaviors, at higher frequencies and/or quantities than the person intended, often associated with a persistent desire for and unsuccessful attempts at behavioral control; b. Excessive time lost in substance use or recovering from the effects of substance use and/or engagement in addictive behaviors, with significant adverse impact on social and occupational functioning (e. Continued use and/or engagement in addictive behaviors, despite the presence of persistent or recurrent physical or psychological problems which may have been caused or exacerbated by substance use and/or related addictive behaviors; d. A narrowing of the behavioral repertoire focusing on rewards that are part of addiction; and e. An apparent lack of ability and/or readiness to take consistent, ameliorative action despite recognition of problems. Altered evaluations of the relative benefits and detriments associated with drugs or rewarding behaviors; and c. The inaccurate belief that problems experienced in one’s life are attributable to other causes rather than being a predictable consequence of addiction. Increased sensitivity to stressors associated with the recruitment of brain stress systems, such that “things seem more stressful” as a result; and c. Difficulty in identifying feelings, distinguishing between feelings and the bodily sensations of emotional arousal, and describing feelings to other people (sometimes referred to as alexithymia). Some persons use alcohol or other drugs or pathologically pursue other rewards because they are seeking “positive reinforcement” or the creation of a positive emotional state (“euphoria”). Others pursue substance use or other rewards because they have experienced relief from negative emotional states (“dysphoria”), which constitutes “negative reinforcement. When anyone experiences mild intoxication through the use of alcohol or other drugs, or when one engages non-pathologically in potentially addictive behaviors such as gambling or eating, one may experience a “high”, felt as a “positive” emotional state associated with increased dopamine and opioid peptide activity in reward circuits. After such an experience, there is a neurochemical rebound, in which the reward function does not simply revert to baseline, but often drops below the original levels. This is usually not consciously perceptible by the individual and is not necessarily associated with functional impairments. Over time, repeated experiences with substance use or addictive behaviors are not associated with ever increasing reward circuit activity and are not as subjectively rewarding. Once a person experiences withdrawal from drug use or comparable behaviors, there is an anxious, agitated, dysphoric and labile emotional experience, related to suboptimal reward and the recruitment of brain and hormonal stress systems, which is associated with withdrawal from virtually all pharmacological classes of addictive drugs. While tolerance develops to the “high,” tolerance does not develop to the emotional “low” associated with the cycle of intoxication and withdrawal. Thus, in addiction, persons repeatedly attempt to create a “high”--but what they mostly experience is a deeper and deeper “low. Persons with addiction compulsively use even though it may not make them feel good, in some cases long after the pursuit of “rewards” is not 5 actually pleasurable. Although people from any culture may choose to “get high” from one or another activity, it is important to appreciate that addiction is not solely a function of choice. As addiction is a chronic disease, periods of relapse, which may interrupt spans of remission, are a common feature of addiction. It is also important to recognize that return to drug use or pathological pursuit of rewards is not inevitable. Clinical interventions can be quite effective in altering the course of addiction. Close monitoring of the behaviors of the individual and contingency management, sometimes including behavioral consequences for relapse behaviors, can contribute to positive clinical outcomes. Engagement in health promotion activities which promote personal responsibility and accountability, connection with others, and personal growth also contribute to recovery. It is important to recognize that addiction can cause disability or premature death, especially when left untreated or treated inadequately. The qualitative ways in which the brain and behavior respond to drug exposure and engagement in addictive behaviors are different at later stages of addiction than in earlier stages, indicating progression, which may not be overtly apparent. As is the case with other chronic diseases, the condition must be monitored and managed over time to: a. In most cases of addiction, the integration of psychosocial rehabilitation and ongoing care with evidence-based pharmacological therapy provides the best results. Chronic disease management is important for minimization of episodes of relapse and their impact. Treatment of addiction saves lives † Addiction professionals and persons in recovery know the hope that is found in recovery. Recovery is available even to persons who may not at first be able to perceive this hope, especially when the focus is on linking the health consequences to the disease of addiction. As in other health conditions, self-management, with mutual support, is very important in recovery from addiction. Peer support such as that found in various “self-help” activities is beneficial in optimizing health status and functional outcomes in recovery. The neurobiology of reward has been well understood for decades, whereas the neurobiology of addiction is still being explored. Current neuroscience recognizes that the neurocircuitry of reward also involves a rich bi-directional circuitry connecting the nucleus accumbens and the basal forebrain. It is the reward circuitry where reward is registered, and where the most fundamental rewards such as food, August 15, 2011 Page 6 hydration, sex, and nurturing exert a strong and life-sustaining influence. Alcohol, nicotine, other drugs and pathological gambling behaviors exert their initial effects by acting on the same reward circuitry that appears in the brain to make food and sex, for example, profoundly reinforcing. Other effects, such as intoxication and emotional euphoria from rewards, derive from activation of the reward circuitry. While intoxication and withdrawal are well understood through the study of reward circuitry, understanding of addiction requires understanding of a broader network of neural connections involving forebrain as well as midbrain structures. Selection of certain rewards, preoccupation with certain rewards, response to triggers to pursue certain rewards, and motivational drives to use alcohol and other drugs and/or pathologically seek other rewards, involve multiple brain regions outside of reward neurocircuitry itself. These five features are not intended to be used as “diagnostic criteria” for determining if addiction is present or not. Although these characteristic features are widely present in most cases of addiction, regardless of the pharmacology of the substance use seen in addiction or the reward that is pathologically pursued, each feature may not be equally prominent in every case. The diagnosis of addiction requires a comprehensive biological, psychological, social and spiritual assessment by a trained and certified professional.

Dudgeon in his admirable translation of the Materia Medica Pura (London generic mentax 15mg overnight delivery, 1880) ; he has faithfully rendered not only the ideas but also the expressions of Hahnemann generic mentax 15mg. We have accordingly preserved the long periods of Hahnemann and his own precise 15 mg mentax with mastercard, if sometimes redundant discount 15mg mentax, phraseology ; though, of course it was necessary to invert the periods and to arrange the phrases into the English order. This applies chiefly to the first theoretic part of the work, and in this part we would especially acknowledge the able assistance of Dr. Pemberton Dudley, who has taken care that too close a clinging to the German original might be avoided. We have generally endeavored to translate the same German word by the same English word, except where words have several meanings. Dudgeon with "pressive" or with "aching", we have uniformly rendered with pressive ; while we use "ache" to translate the German weh. There are a few words which require a varied translation according to the context : Brust is used both for "chest" and for "the female breast", so that e. We have taken care to translate these terms according to the context in every case, though the learned reader will remember that in some of these cases there is a little ambiguity. One of the German terms which seems to have no good English equivalent is Eingenommen with respect to the head. It means literally "occupied" and describes the sensation produced in the head by a cold, where the parts are as it were benumbed and incapacitated from acting freely. We have usually rendered it with "benumbed feeling", though as none of these terms was quite satisfactory, we have also sometimes used "muddled feeling" or "obtuseness". As was done in the Materia Medica Pura published in London, so we have also in this work printed the names of old school authorities cited with small capitals, while the names of other provers are in italics, so that it may be seen at a glance, whether the symptom was produced by an intentional proving (or from clinical experience), or whether it was the result of accidental poisoning or an overdose by an observer of the old school. Richard Hughes, of Bath, England, who in the course of his researches found occasion to rectify the numbers referring to the pages, etc. These at his suggestion were at first merely entered in the translation instead of the figures given by Hahnemann ; but on second thought, it seemed more useful to give them among the other notes given by Dr. While there seemed to be no necessity for an index to the Antipsoric Medicines, since this is furnished in the various repertories, especially in that of Bœnninghausen, it was thought useful to have an index to the first or theoretical part, and this was accordingly prepared by the translator. I shall do this mainly by notes appended to each pathogenesis ; but in the present place I desire to state what is known in a general way about the symptom-lists in question, [*] and what I propose to do for them as they severally appear in the following pages. In 1821 Hahnemann had been compelled to leave Leipsic, and, in difficulty where to find a place in which he could practice in freedom, had been offered an asylum in the little country town of Cœthen. He now ceased to attend acute disease, save in the family of his patron, the reigning Duke. But his fame brought him for consultation chronic suffers from all parts ; and the varied, shifting, and obstinate morbid stated under which so many men and women labour were pressed closely upon his attention. The result was the theory of chronic disease which (in its latest shape) will be found in these pages, and which traces so many of its forms to a "psoric" origin. To meet the manifold disorders thus induced it seemed to him that a new set of remedies were required. Accordingly, of the three volumes of the first edition of the present work published in 1828, the two latter contained what seem to be pathogeneses of fifteen medicines hitherto strange to his Materia Medica Pura, and in some cases to any Materia Medica whatever. These medicines were : Ammonium carbonicum, Baryta carbonica, Calcarea carbonica, Graphites, Iodium, Lycopodium, Magnesia carbonica, Magnesia muriatica, Natrum carbonicum, Nitri acidum, Petroleum, Phosphorus, Sepia, Silicea, Zincum. The pathogeneses of the foregoing (I assume them to be such from the analogy of the corresponding symptom-lists of the Materia Medica Pura ; but they are not avowedly so) appear without a word of explanation as to how the symptoms were obtained, and without acknowledgement (as in the previous work) of fellow-observers. The absence of any co-operation on the part of others is further to be inferred from what we are told of the first announcement of the work. After six years of solitude at Cœthen, Hahnemann "summoned thither his two oldest and most esteemed disciples, Drs. Stapf and Gross, and communicated to them his theory of the origin of chronic disease, and his discovery of a completely new series of medicaments for their cure". That he should now first reveal these new remedies, and in the following year should publish copious lists of their pathogenetic effects confirms the inference to be drawn from his position and from his silence as to fellow-observers. He was himself between seventy and eighty years old, and it is hardly likely that he did anything at this time in the way of proving on his own person. We are compelled to the conclusion that he drew these symptoms mainly -if not entirely- from the sufferers from chronic disease who flocked to his retreat to avail themselves of his treatment. The prefatory notices to the several medicines still further substantiate this view, and throw some light on the doses with which the symptoms were obtained. He recommends all the medicines to be given in the dilutions from the 18th to the 30th (save Magnesia muriatica and Natrum carbonicum, of which he advises the 6th and 12th respectively) ; and repeatedly makes some such remark as this : "For a long time past I have given the 6th, 9th and 12th potencies, but found their effects too violent". Occasionally, too, he must have used the second and third triturations ; as he speaks of having begun by giving a "small portion of a grain" of these, but, as this was an indefinite quantity, having subsequently dissolved and attenuated them. He mentions cases, moreover, in which he treated itch with Carbo vegetabilis and Sepia of the latter strength. We may conclude, therefore, that it is these "violent effects" of the attenuations from the 2nd to the 12th, experienced by the sufferers from chronic disease who took them, which make up the bulk -if not the whole- of the symptoms of the first issue of the Chronic Diseases. In 1830 there appeared a third volume (making the fourth of the first edition) of symptom-lists, appended to two more new medicines -Kali carbonicum and Natrum muriaticum, and to five others- Carbo animalis and vegetabilis, Causticum, Conium and Sulphur -which had already found place in the Materia Medica Pura. Of the new ones we are told that two persons co-operated in obtaining the pathogenesis of Kali carbonicum and three in that of Natrum muriaticum- in the case of the latter the symptoms being obtained from healthy persons taking globules saturated with the 30th dilution. A new character is thus imprinted on the symptoms standing under the names of the several medicines, and it continues with respect to those contained in the second edition of the Chronic Diseases, published 1835-9, which is that here translated. Besides the twenty-two medicines of the first edition it contains twenty-five others, of which thirteen are new, and twelve had already appeared in the Materia Medica Pura. The new ones are : Agaricus, Alumina, Ammonium muriaticum, Anacardium, Clematis, Cuprum, Euphorbium, Mezereum, Antimonium crudum, Borax, Nitrum, Platina, Sulphuris acidum. The old ones are : Arsenicum, Aurum, Colocynth, Digitalis, Dulcamara, Guaiacum, Hepar sulphuris, Manganum, Muriatis acidum, Phosphori acidum, Sarsaparilla, Stannum. Those pathogeneses which had already seen the light have (generally) large additions ; for all Hahnemann acknowledges contributions from fellow-observers, and for many cites symptoms from the extant literature of his day. There are, it is evident, fresh features in the pathogeneses of this second edition ; and there are more than appear on the surface. They must all, moreover, be supposed to have resulted from the 30th dilution ; for since 1829 he had urged the administration of all medicines at this potency. But they must in all cases have been evoked from the 30th dilution ; for in the edition of the Organon published in 1833 Hahnemann recommends all provings to be made therewith, as yielding the best results. We have seen that the symptoms of Natrum muriaticum contributed by others to the fourth volume of the first edition were so obtained ; and we may fairly extend the inference to all provings subsequently made. It is otherwise, however, with the provings first published in the Materia Medica Pura, in the present edition so largely incorporated with those of later origin. These seem, from the scanty information we have, to have been made with mother tinctures and first triturations - repeated small doses being taken until some effect was produced.

Dietary ascorbate is absorbed and distributed throughout the body within a few hours order mentax 15mg amex. The biochemical importance of vitamin C is primarily based on its reducing po- tential order 15mg mentax overnight delivery, as is required in a number of hydroxylation reactions discount mentax 15mg amex. Several hydroxy- lases involved in collagen synthesis require ascorbate as a reductant (11) generic mentax 15 mg fast delivery. Due to its high reduction potential, ascorbate is an efficient scavenger of superoxide anion radicals, hydroxyl radicals, hypochlorite, singlet oxygen, thiyl radicals, and water-soluble peroxyl radicals (2,12,13). Oxidation of ascorbate results in the formation of dehydroascorbate via the ascorbyl radical, which can be recycled back to ascorbate in the presence of thiols (Fig. Please note that some of the depicted recycling mechanisms have been found in other than cutaneous systems (see ‘‘Antioxidant Properties’’). Although ascorbate is not able to scavenge lipophilic radicals directly, in the presence of vitamin E it synergistically reduces lipid peroxyl radicals by reacting with tocopheroxyl radicals. Mixtures of copper or iron salts with ascorbate are well known to stimulate lipid peroxidation in vitro (15). With the exception of pathological metal overload disease states, however, the prooxidative potential of ascorbate is not considered to be of relevance in vivo (16). Prevalence in Skin In skin, the data available on ascorbate concentrations are limited and variable due to differences in species, skin layer analyzed, and method of analysis (Table 1). Importantly, however, vitamin C is present at sig- nificant levels in both the dermis and epidermis of animals and humans. In hair- less mice, vitamin C levels are only slightly higher in the epidermis than in the dermis (5,17). In human skin, which is dependent on dietary vitamin C, the epi- dermis apparently contains approximately fivefold higher levels than the dermis (18). This difference in dermal and epidermal vitamin C levels may reflect an increased utilization in the dermis for the regulation of collagen and elastin bio- synthesis (19), or facilitated transport mechanisms for vitamin C from the dermal Antioxidant Defense Systems in Skin 149 Table 1 Physiological Levels of Ascorbate in Cutaneous Tissues Skin layer Species Concentration References Year Total skin Rat 0. The epidermis is not only more directly exposed to the environment than the underlying dermis and therefore might have a higher demand of antioxidant protection, but also requires the presence of ascorbate for efficient formation of the stratum corneum barrier (20). Isolated human stratum corneum was reported to contain only very low ascorbate levels, as compared with levels in subjacent epidermal layers (6). The latter phenomenon is most likely due to both the hydrophobicity and, due to its location, the high degree of environmental exposure of the stratum corneum. In cells, glutathione is syn- thesized from glutamate, cysteine, and glycine (22). It acts as a substrate for numerous reducing enzymes, among them glutathione peroxidase and the phos- pholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase. Therefore, the absence of gluta- thione may lead to an accumulation of lipid hydroperoxides (2). In humans, who are dependent on dietary vitamin C intake, this link remains to be clarified. However, comparing the relative levels, most studies demonstrated higher glutathione levels in the epidermis than in the dermis. Since the epidermis is more directly exposed to the environment, it seems also possible that the pathways leading to the endog- enous formation of epidermal glutathione are upregulated by chronic environ- mental factors, as was shown for glutathione peroxidase in ozone-exposed lung epithelium (26). Urate Antioxidant Properties Uric acid (deprotonated form: urate) is a small water-soluble molecule (Fig. In blood plasma, urate has been shown to be a powerful scavenger of singlet oxygen, peroxyl-, and hydroxyl radicals (28). Fur- ther studies have demonstrated that urate scavenges ozone (15) and hypochlorous acid (29). In addition to its radical-scavenging potential, urate was proposed to stabilize reduced vitamin C in serum. This stabilizing effect appears to be due to inhibition of iron-catalyzed oxidation of ascorbate, which largely results from the formation of a stable, noncatalytic urate–iron complex (30). Unlike radical- scavenging reactions, this protective effect provided by iron chelation is not asso- ciated with depletion of urate. Direct free-radical attack upon urate generates allantoin, which has therefore been proposed as a marker molecule for free-radi- cal reactions in vivo (31). Prevalence in Skin Only little data are available on urate levels in cutane- ous tissues. Thus, as found for other antioxidants, the highest cutaneous urate levels are present in epidermal tissue. Lipid-Soluble Antioxidants Vitamin E Antioxidant Properties Vitamin E is the major lipophilic antioxidant in plasma, membranes, and tissues (33). The term ‘‘vitamin E’’ collectively refers to the eight naturally occurring molecules (four tocopherols and four tocotrie- nols), which exhibit vitamin E activity. Tocotrienols differ from tocopherols in that they have an isoprenoid instead of a phytyl side chain (see Fig. In humans, α– tocopherol is the most abundant vitamin E homologue, followed by γ–tocopherol. Vitamin E is among the early recognized biological antioxidants, and its redox and free-radical chemistry are well documented (33). The major antioxidant role of vitamin E is generally considered to be the arrest of chain propagation by scavenging lipid peroxyl radicals. The initial oxidation product of tocopherol is the metastable tocopheroxyl radical (Fig. Thus, one molecule of tocopherol is able to scav- enge two peroxyl radical molecules. Since the physiological molar ratio of to- copherols to polyunsaturated phospholipids, first-line targets of oxidative attack, is less than about 1:1000 in most biological membranes, regeneration of tocoph- erol is essential for its high antioxidant efficacy in vivo. As mentioned above, several hydrophilic coantioxidants, such as ascorbate and glutathione, can regen- erate vitamin E from the tocopheroxyl radical and thus enhance the antioxidant capacity of vitamin E (14). Furthermore, there is some in vitro evidence that ubiquinol-10 protects α– tocopherol from photo-oxidation by recycling mechanisms (37). In vitro, unphys- iologically high concentrations of α–tocopherol were reported to induce prooxi- dative effects leading to acceleration of lipid peroxidation (38,39). In human skin in vivo, however, such adverse health effects have not been reported. Prevalence in Skin As demonstrated in other body tissues, α-tocopherol is the predominant vitamin E homologue in murine and human skin (Table 3) (5,6,18). In addition, γ–tocopherol is present in murine and human epidermis, dermis, and stratum corneum. The α–tocopherol/γ–tocopherol molar ratio in the human dermis and epidermis is approx.

The misunder- standing was that some people had the idea that it was possible to take x-ray pictures with refected x-rays – which means that both the x-ray tube and the flm was in the photographer’s box (like an ordinary camera) discount mentax 15 mg visa. As a result of this some people feared that you could use an x-ray camera to watch people when they changed into swimming suits inside the small cabins on the beach discount mentax 15 mg on-line. A London tailor company advertised therefore that they could make x-ray proof underclothing for ladies generic 15 mg mentax fast delivery. Today with the use of Compton backscattering technique all this is a reality – and in fact in use sev- eral places for security generic mentax 15 mg free shipping. Today we know that it is pos- sible to use refected x-rays and see through cloths. It Scattered photon is a reaction between the x-ray photon and a free l` or loosely bound electron. With the knowledge of backscattered Compton radiation, equipment have been developed for observ- ing objects. The picture is formed by a pencil-shaped beam of x-rays that is sweeping the object. The energy used is approxi- mately 100 keV (100 – 200 kV tubes) which ensures that the Compton process is dominating. The resolution is (so far) not as good as for ordinary x-rays, but you can easily see objects with an atomic number different from that for tissue. It is possible to use the technique to see the contents of a closed container through the container walls. The technique is excellent for observ- ing hidden objects on people or the cargo in contain- ers – objects that is not possible to observe with the usual metal detectors.. The most common radioisotope used in diagnosis is technetium-99, but a large number of other isotopes are in use. The thyroid, bones, heart, liver and many other organs can be easily imaged, and disorders in their function revealed. Diagnosis For diagnostic purposes we use radioactive tracers which emit gamma rays from within the body. The isotopes are generally short-lived and linked to chemical compounds which permit specifc physi- ological processes to be studied. For a number of years the g-radiation was observed using a so-called gamma camera. When this nuclide decays, it emits a positron, which promptly combines with a nearby electron resulting in the simultaneous emission of two g-photons in opposite directions. With the isotope F-18 as the tracer, it has proven to be the most accurate noninvasive method of detecting and evaluating most cancers. The reason for this is that F-18 can be added to glucose – and the tumors have an increased rate of glucose metabolism compared to benign cells. Isotopes for diagnosis Let us point out a couple of important requirements for the use of ra- dioisotopes: 1. Due to the requirement of a short half-life mainly or solely artifcially made isotopes comes into question. This implies that the nuclear medicine started when equipment like the cyclotron and neutron sources like the reactor become available in the 1930s and 1940s. Georg de Hevesy and coworkers used Pb-210 (one of the isotopes in the Uranium-radium-series) and studied the absorption and elimination of lead, bismuth and thallium salts by animal organisms. Chieivitz and Georg de Hevesy administered phosphate la- beled with P–32 to rats and demonstrated the renewal of the mineral constituents of bone. George de Hevesy was awarded the Nobel prize in chemis- try for his pioneering work with radioactive tracers. George de Hevesy (1885 – 1966) 1930s in Berkeley He was awarded the Nobel prize in chemistry for 1943. The University of California in Berkeley has played a sig- “for his work on the use of isotopes nifcant role in the start and growth of nuclear medicine. The Lawrence brothers are of Norwegian heritage and Sea- borg is coming from Sweden. Lawrence, the brother of Ernest, made the frst clinical therapeutic application of an artif- cial radionuclide when he used phosphorus-32 to treat leukemia. Also Joseph Gilbert Hamilton and Robert Spencer Stone administered sodium-24 to a leukemia patient. Furthermore, this year Emilio Segre and Seaborg discovered Tc-99m the metastable (excited) Tc-99 isotope. The metastable isotope has a half-life of 6 hours and emit a g-photon with energy 140 keV. Tc–99m is an important isotope and is used in approximately 85 percent Emilio Segrè of diagnostic imaging procedures in nuclear medicine. The development of nuclear accelerators – in particular the cyclotron – made it possible to enter the feld of nuclear medicine. Two scientists are of utmost importance for the construction of the frst accelerators; Rolf Widerøe and Ernest Lawrence. The development of the cyclotron and the beginning of nuclear medicine is closely connect- ed to California and the Berkeley University. It all started when the oldest of the Lawrence brothers (Ernest) came to Berkeley in 1929. In a linear accelerator charged particles are accelerated in tubes forming a straight line. Lawrence arranged this by letting the particles go in larger and larger circles within a box – kept in place by a magnetic feld. Ernest Lawrence Rolf Widerøe (1901 – 1958) (1902 – 1996) Ernest Lawrence is of Norwegian heritage Rolf Widerøe is Norwegian, born in Oslo. He was He was engaged in the construction of an the father of the frst cyclotrons constructed accelerator, and published these ideas al- in Berkeley. His name is The Radiation Laboratory in Berkeley are connected to important acellerators for radi- named after him. He was an exciting public science center with excit- behind the frst high energy radiation source ing hands-on experiences for learners of all in Norway – the betatron from 1953 at The ages. The above picture is a model of a cyclotron – placed near the entrance of “Lawrence Hall of Science” in Berkeley. The Berkeley University developed a number of accelerators and become the place where new isotopes were produced. The leading scientist in the production of new isotopes and elements was Glenn Seaborg. Glenn Seaborg (1912 – 1999) Glenn Seaborg was a Swedish American (his mother was from Sweden). Seaborg was the prin- cipal or co-discoverer of ten elements: plutonium, americium, curium, berkelium, californium, ein- steinium, fermium, mendelevium, nobelium and element 106, which was named seaborgium in his honor while he was still living. He also developed more than 100 atomic isotopes, like I-131 and Tc- 99m which are important isotopes for medicine. Seaborg was avarded the Nobel prize for Chem- istry in 1951 together with another Berkeley sci- entist Edwin McMillan.

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