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By G. Falk. Manchester College. 2019.

Then the students were told to go into a second room in which two experimenters were present buy 100 ml duphalac, and to approach either one of them generic duphalac 100 ml fast delivery. However buy duphalac 100 ml cheap, the researchers arranged it so that one of the two experimenters looked a lot like the original experimenter discount duphalac 100 ml line, while the other one did not (she had longer hair and no glasses). The students were significantly more likely to avoid the experimenter who looked like the earlier experimenter when that experimenter had been negative Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. The participants showed stimulus generalization such that the new, similar-looking experimenter created the same negative response in the participants as had the experimenter in the prior session. The flip side of generalization is discrimination—the tendency to respond differently to stimuli that are similar but not identical. Pavlov‘s dogs quickly learned, for example, to salivate when they heard the specific tone that had preceded food, but not upon hearing similar tones that had never been associated with food. Discrimination is also useful—if we do try the purple berries, and if they do not make us sick, we will be able to make the distinction in the future. And we can learn that although the two people in our class, Courtney and Sarah, may look a lot alike, they are nevertheless different people with different personalities. In some cases, an existing conditioned stimulus can serve as an unconditioned stimulus for a pairing with a new conditioned stimulus—a process known as second-order conditioning. Eventually he found that the dogs would salivate at the sight of the black square alone, even though it had never been directly associated with the food. Secondary conditioners in everyday life include our attractions to things that stand for or remind us of something else, such as when we feel good on a Friday because it has become associated with the paycheck that we receive on that day, which itself is a conditioned stimulus for the pleasures that the paycheck buys us. The Role of Nature in Classical Conditioning As we have seen in Chapter 1 "Introducing Psychology", scientists associated with the behavioralist school argued that all learning is driven by experience, and that nature plays no role. Classical conditioning, which is based on learning through experience, represents an example of the importance of the environment. Nature also plays a part, as our evolutionary history has made us better able to learn some associations than others. For example, driving a car is a neutral event that would not normally elicit a fear response in most people. But if a person were to experience a panic attack in which he suddenly experienced strong negative emotions while driving, he may learn to associate driving with the panic response. Psychologists have also discovered that people do not develop phobias to just anything. Although people may in some cases develop a driving phobia, they are more likely to develop phobias toward objects (such as snakes, spiders, heights, and open spaces) that have been dangerous to people in the past. In modern life, it is rare for humans to be bitten by spiders or snakes, to fall from trees or buildings, or to be attacked by a predator in an open area. But in our evolutionary past, the potential of being bitten by snakes or spiders, falling out of a tree, or being trapped in an open space were important evolutionary concerns, and therefore humans are still evolutionarily prepared to learn these associations over others (Öhman & Mineka, 2001; LoBue [2] & DeLoache, 2010). Another evolutionarily important type of conditioning is conditioning related to food. Garcia discovered that taste conditioning was extremely powerful— the rat learned to avoid the taste associated with illness, even if the illness occurred several hours later. But conditioning the behavioral response of nausea to a sight or a sound was much more difficult. These results contradicted the idea that conditioning occurs entirely as a result of environmental events, such that it would occur equally for any kind of unconditioned stimulus that followed any kind of conditioned stimulus. Rather, Garcia‘s research showed that genetics matters—organisms are evolutionarily prepared to learn some associations more easily than Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. You can see that the ability to associate smells with illness is an important survival mechanism, allowing the organism to quickly learn to avoid foods that are poisonous. A teacher places gold stars on the chalkboard when the students are quiet and attentive. Eventually, the students start becoming quiet and attentive whenever the teacher approaches the chalkboard. Recall a time in your life, perhaps when you were a child, when your behaviors were influenced by classical conditioning. Describe in detail the nature of the unconditioned and conditioned stimuli and the response, using the appropriate psychological terms. Fears, phobias, and preparedness: Toward an evolved module of fear and fear learning. Neurobiological basis of failure to recall extinction memory in posttraumatic stress disorder. Explain how learning can be shaped through the use of reinforcement schedules and secondary reinforcers. In classical conditioning the organism learns to associate new stimuli with natural, biological responses such as salivation or fear. The organism does not learn something new but rather begins to perform in an existing behavior in the presence of a new signal. Operant conditioning, on the other hand, is learning that occurs based on the consequences of behavior and can involve the learning of new actions. Operant conditioning occurs when a dog rolls over on command because it has been praised for doing so in the past, when a schoolroom bully threatens his classmates because doing so allows him to get his way, and when a child gets good grades because her parents threaten to punish her if she doesn‘t. In operant conditioning the organism learns from the consequences of its own actions. How Reinforcement and Punishment Influence Behavior: The Research of Thorndike and Skinner Psychologist Edward L. Thorndike (1874–1949) was the first scientist to systematically study [1] operant conditioning. In his research Thorndike (1898) observed cats who had been placed in a “puzzle box‖ from which they tried to escape (Note 7. But eventually, and accidentally, they pressed the lever that opened the door and exited to their prize, a scrap of fish. The next time the cat was constrained within the box it attempted fewer of the ineffective responses before carrying out the successful escape, and after several trials the cat learned to almost immediately make the correct response. Observing these changes in the cats‘ behavior led Thorndike to develop hislaw of effect, the principle that responses that create a typically pleasant outcome in a particular situation are more likely to occur again in a similar situation, whereas responses that produce a typically [2] unpleasant outcome are less likely to occur again in the situation (Thorndike, 1911). The essence of the law of effect is that successful responses, because they are pleasurable, are “stamped in‖ by experience and thus occur more frequently. Unsuccessful responses, which produce unpleasant experiences, are “stamped out‖ and subsequently occur less frequently. Video Clip: Thorndike’s Puzzle Box When Thorndike placed his cats in a puzzle box, he found that they learned to engage in the important escape behavior faster after each trial. Thorndike described the learning that follows reinforcement in terms of the law of effect. Skinner (1904–1990) expanded on Thorndike‘s ideas to develop a more complete set of principles to explain operant conditioning. Skinner created specially designed environments known as operant chambers (usually called Skinner boxes) to systemically study learning. A Skinner box (operant chamber) is a structure that is big enough to fit a rodent or bird and that contains a bar or key that the organism can press or peck to release food or water. The most basic of Skinner‘s experiments was quite similar to Thorndike‘s research with cats.

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Alcoholic Hallucinosis This is an infrequent disorder that tends to occur at about the age of 40 years in those who have been drinking heavily for more than 10 years cheap 100 ml duphalac visa. The essential features are vivid and persistent hallucinations buy duphalac 100 ml, which develop shortly (usually within 48 hours) after cessation of alcohol intake duphalac 100 ml cheap. The hallucinations may be auditory or visual discount duphalac 100 ml fast delivery, and their content is usually unpleasant and disturb- ing. The disorder may last several weeks or months and is quite different from the fleeting hallucinations observed in other forms of alcohol withdrawal. Cardiac Arrhythmias The frequency of tachyrhythmias in alcohol withdrawal is high, probably because of high adrenergic nervous system activity. Adequate sedation will play a part in preventing such unwanted occurrences happening in police cus- tody, although those with severe alcohol withdrawal are best admitted to the hospital, where they can be placed on a cardiac monitor. Metabolic Disorders Wernicke’s encephalopathy is an acute, potentially reversible neurologic disorder that is believed to result from a deficiency of thiamine and is often secondary to chronic alcohol abuse. Features include disturbance of conscious- ness (ranging from mild confusion to coma), ophthalmoplegia, nystagmus, and ataxia. This is a chronic condi- tion that usually presents as impairment of short-term memory with inability to learn new information and compensatory confabulation. Korsakoff’s psychosis probably represents irreversible brain damage secondary to the combined toxic- ity of alcohol and metabolic derangement resulting from thiamine deficiency. Randomised controlled trial of general practitio- ner intervention in patients with excessive alcohol consumption. Cocaine abuse in methadone maintenance patients is associated with low serum methadone concentrations. Guidance for the Use of Buprenorphine for the Treatment of Opioid Dependence in Primary Care. Cocaine-induced ventricular arrhythmias and rapid atrial fibrillation temporarily related to naloxone administration. Flunitrazepam intoxication in a child successfully treated with the benzodiazepine antagonist flumazenil. Diagnostic utility of flumazenil in coma with suspected poisoning: a double blind randomised controlled study. Volatile substance abuse: a review of possible long-term neurological, intellectual and psychiatric sequelae. Mescaline, lysergic acid diethylamide and psilocybin: comparison of clinical syndromes, effects on color perception and bio- chemical measures. An association between the regular use of 3,4, methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (ecstasy) and excessive wear of the teeth. Acute systemic effects of cocaine in man—a controlled study by intranasal and intravenous routes. Use and abuse of khat (Catha edulis): a review of the distribution, pharmacology, side effects, and a description of psycho- sis attributed to khat chewing. The effects of superphysiologic doses of testosterone on muscle size and strength in normal men. Three cases of nalbuphine hydro- chloride dependence associated with anabolic steroid use. Pharmacokinetics of gamma-hydroxybu- tyric acid in alcohol dependent patients after single and repeated oral doses. Presented at the 49th Annual Meeting of the American Acad- emy of Forensic Sciences, New York, 1997 107. Multistate outbreak of poisonings associated with the illicit use of gammahydroxybutyrate. Saturday night blue—a case of near fatal poisoning from the abuse of amyl nitrite. Biochemistry and physiology of alcohol: applications to forensic science and toxicology. Food-induced lowering of blood-ethanol profiles and increased rate of elimination immediately after a meal. Lack of observable intoxication in humans with high plasma alcohol concentrations. Alcohol and the law: the legal framework of scientific evidence and expert testimony. Eye signs in suspected drinking drivers: clinical examination and relation to blood alcohol. Acute effects of alcohol on left ventricular function in healthy subjects at rest and during upright exercise. Drunken detain- ees in police custody: is brief intervention by the forensic medical examiner fea- sible? The validity of self-reported alcohol consumption and alcohol prob- lems: a literature review. Assessment and management of individuals under the influence of alcohol in police custody. This chapter aims to pro- vide a broad basis for the understanding of the disease processes and the mecha- nisms that may lead to death and also to provide some understanding of the current thinking behind deaths associated with restraint. The worldwide variations in these definitions have caused, and continue to cause, considerable confusion in any discussion of this subject. For the purposes of this chapter, “in custody” relates to any individual who is either under arrest or otherwise under police control and, although similar deaths may occur in prison, in psychiatric wards, or in other situations where people are detained against their will, the deaths specifically associated with police detention form the basis for this chapter. It is important to distinguish between the different types of custodial deaths because deaths that are related to direct police actions (acts of commission) seem to cause the greatest concern to the family, public, and press. It is also important to remember that police involvement in the detention of individuals From: Clinical Forensic Medicine: A Physician’s Guide, 2nd Edition Edited by: M. These acts are considerably harder to define and perhaps sometimes result from the police being placed in, or assuming, a role of caring (e. Police involvement with an individual can also include those who are being pursued by the police either on foot or by vehicle, those who have been stopped and are being questioned outside the environment of a police station, and those who have become unwell through natural causes while in contact with or in the custody of the police. The definitions of “death in custody” are therefore wide, and attempts at simple definitions are fraught with difficulty. Any definition will have to cover a multitude of variable factors, in various circumstances and with a variety of individuals. The crucial point is that the police owe a duty of care to each and every member of the public with whom they have contact, and it is essential that every police officer, whether acting or reacting to events, understands and is aware of the welfare of the individual or individuals with whom he or she is dealing. The number of deaths recorded in police custody in England and Wales from 1990 to 2002 (2) shows considerable variation year to year but with an encouraging decline from the peak in 1998 (Fig. In contrast, the data from Australia for much of the same period show little change (3) (Fig.

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In: T2000 Proceedings of the International Conference on Alcohol purchase 100 ml duphalac free shipping, Drugs buy 100 ml duphalac visa, and Traffic Safety cheap duphalac 100 ml fast delivery, Stockholm cheap duphalac 100 ml with amex, Sweden, May 26, 2000. Anxiolytics’ effects on the actual driving performance of patients and healthy volunteers in a standardized test. Clinical Impairment of Benzodiaz- epines–Relation between Benzodiazepine Concentrations and Impairment in Apprehended Drivers. Venlafaxine’s effects on healthy volunteers’ driving, psychomotor, and vigilance performance during 15-day fixed and incremental dosing regimens. The effects of terfenadine with and without alcohol on an aspect of car driving performance. Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Alcohol, Drugs, Traffic Safety, Adelaide, Australia, 1995. Drugs driving—standardized field sobriety tests: a survey of police surgeons in Strathclyde. Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Alcohol, Drugs and Traffic Safety. The appendices contain useful information for a worldwide audience of physicians working in the field of clinical forensic medicine. Article 1 Law enforcement officials shall at all times fulfill the duty imposed upon them by law, by serving the community and by protecting all persons against illegal acts, consistent with the high degree of responsibility required by their profession. The term “law enforcement officials” includes all officers of the law, whether appointed or elected, who exercise police powers, especially the powers of arrest or detention. In countries where police powers are exercised by military authorities, whether uniformed or not, or by State security forces, the definition of law enforcement officials shall be regarded as including officers of such services. Service to the community is intended to include particularly the rendition of ser- vices of assistance to those members of the community who by reason of per- sonal, economic, social or other emergencies are in need of immediate aid. This provision is intended to cover not only all violent, predatory, and harmful acts, but extends to the full range of prohibitions under penal statutes. The human rights in question are identified and protected by national and inter- national law. Among the relevant international instruments are the Universal Declaration of Human Rights; the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights; the Declaration on the Protection of All Persons from Being Subjected to Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment; the United Nations Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination; the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Dis- crimination; the International Convention on the Suppression and Punishment of the Crime of Apartheid; the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide; and the Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners and the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations. National commentaries to this provision should indicate regional or national pro- visions identifying and protecting these rights. Article 3 Law enforcement officials may use force only when strictly necessary and to the extent required for the performance of their duty. This provision emphasizes that the use of force by law enforcement officials should be exceptional; although it implies that law enforcement officials may be authorized to use force as is reasonably necessary under the circumstances for the prevention of crime or in effecting or assisting in the lawful arrest of offend- ers or suspected offenders, no force going beyond that may be used. National law ordinarily restricts the use of force by law enforcement officials in accordance with a principle of proportionality. It is to be understood that such national principles of proportionality are to be respected in the interpretation of this provision. In no case should this provision be interpreted to authorize the use of force that is disproportionate to the legitimate objective to be achieved. Every effort should be made to exclude the use of firearms, especially against children. In general, fire- arms should not be used except when a suspected offender offers armed resis- tance or otherwise jeopardizes the lives of others and less extreme measures are not sufficient to restrain or apprehend the suspected offender. In every instance in which a firearm is discharged, a report should be made promptly to the compe- tent authorities. Ethical Documents 391 Article 4 Matters of a confidential nature in the possession of law enforcement officials shall be kept confidential, unless the performance of duty or the needs of justice strictly require otherwise. Commentary: By the nature of their duties, law enforcement officials obtain informa- tion that may relate to private lives or be potentially harmful to the interests, especially the reputation of others. Great care should be exercised in safe- guarding and using such information, which should be disclosed only in the performance of duty or to serve the needs of justice. Article 5 No law enforcement official may inflict, instigate, or tolerate any act of torture or other cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment, nor may any law enforcement official invoke superior orders or exceptional cir- cumstances, such as a state of war or a threat of war, a threat to national secu- rity, internal political instability, or any other public emergency as a justification of torture or other cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment. This prohibition derives from the Declaration on the Protection of All Persons from Being Subjected to Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treat- ment or Punishment, adopted by the General Assembly, according to which: “[Such an act is] an offense to human dignity and shall be condemned as a denial of the purposes of the Charter of the United Nations and as a violation of the human rights and fundamental freedoms proclaimed in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights [and other international human rights instruments]. The Declaration defines torture as follows: torture means any act by which se- vere pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, is intentionally inflicted by or at the instigation of a public official on a person for such purposes as obtaining from him or a third person information or confession, punishing him for an act he has committed or is suspected of having committed, or intimidating him or other persons. It does not include pain or suffering arising only from, inherent in or incidental to, lawful sanctions to the extent consistent with the Standard Mini- mum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners. The term “cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment” has not been defined by the General Assembly but should be interpreted to extend the widest possible protection against abuses, whether physical or mental. Although the medical personnel are likely to be attached to the law enforcement operation, law enforcement officials must take into account the judgment of such personnel when they recommend providing the person in custody with appropri- ate treatment through, or in consultation with, medical personnel from outside the law enforcement operation. It is understood that law enforcement officials shall also secure medical attention for victims of violations of law or of accidents occurring in the course of viola- tions of law. Any act of corruption, in the same way as any other abuse of authority, is incom- patible with the profession of law enforcement officials. The law must be enforced fully with respect to any law enforcement official who commits an act of corrup- tion, because governments cannot expect to enforce the law among their citizens if they cannot, or will not, enforce the law against their own agents and within their agencies. Although the definition of corruption must be subject to national law, it should be understood to encompass the commission or omission of an act in the perfor- mance of or in connection with one’s duties; in response to gifts, promises, or incentives demanded or accepted; or the wrongful receipt of these once the act has been committed or omitted. The expression “act of corruption” referred to should be understood to encom- pass attempted corruption. They shall also, to the best of their capability, prevent and rigorously oppose any violations of them. Law enforcement officials who have reason to believe Ethical Documents 393 that a violation of the present Code has occurred or is about to occur shall report the matter to their superior authorities and, where necessary, to other appropriate authorities or organs vested with reviewing or remedial power. This Code shall be observed whenever it has been incorporated into national leg- islation or practice. If legislation or practice contains stricter provisions than those of the present Code, those stricter provisions shall be observed. The article seeks to preserve the balance between the need for internal discipline of the agency on which public safety is largely dependent, on the one hand, and the need for dealing with violations of basic human rights, on the other. Law enforcement officials shall report violations within the chain of command and take other lawful action outside the chain of command only when no other rem- edies are available or effective. It is understood that law enforcement officials shall not suffer administrative or other penalties because they have reported that a violation of this Code has occurred or is about to occur. The term “appropriate authorities or organs vested with reviewing or remedial power” refers to any authority or organ existing under national law, whether internal to the law enforcement agency or independent thereof, with statutory, customary, or other power to review grievances and complaints arising out of violations within the purview of this Code. In some countries, the mass media may be regarded as performing complaint review functions similar to those described in the paragraph above. Law enforce- ment officials may, therefore, be justified if, as a last resort and in accordance with the laws and customs of their own countries and with the provisions of article 4 of the present Code, they bring violations to the attention of public opinion through the mass media. Law enforcement officials who comply with the provisions of this Code deserve the respect, the full support, and the cooperation of the community and of the law enforcement agency in which they serve, as well as the law enforcement profes- sion. Considering that the full exercise of human rights and fundamental freedoms, guaranteed by the European Convention on Human Rights and other national and international instruments, has as a necessary basis the existence of a peaceful society that enjoys the advantages of order and public safety; 394 Appendix 1 2.

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