By Q. Marlo. University of Notre Dame.

Although postdilution haemofltration provides higher solute clearance 100mg epitol overnight delivery, it is limited by the attainable blood fow rate quality 100mg epitol. At fl- tration fractions that are greater than 25 % best epitol 100 mg, secondary membrane effects and con- centration polarization both impair flter performance order 100mg epitol mastercard. In turn, this affects the amount of solute removed by convection as well as increasing the replacement fuid utilization. However, flter viability is improved by predilution as it reduces the risk of clotting in the flter by reducing the haematocrit. Key Messages • Replacement fuids can be delivered to the extracorporeal circuit before the flter (predilution) or after the flter (postdilution). Transport phenomena and living systems: biomedical aspects of momentum and mass transport. Renal replacement techniques: descriptions, mechanisms, choices and controversies. The frst interna- tional consensus conference on continuous renal replacement therapy. Brain density changes during renal replacement in critically ill patients with acute renal failure: continuous hemofltration versus intermittent hemodialysis. Schortgen F, Soubrier N, Delclaux C, Thuong M, Girou E, Brun-Buisson C, Lemaire F, Brochard L. Hemodynamic tolerance of intermittent hemodialysis in critically ill patients usefulness of practice guidelines. Continuous versus intermittent renal replacement therapy for critically ill patients with acute kidney injury: a meta-analysis. Choice of renal replacement therapy modality and dialysis dependence after acute kidney injury: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Acute renal failure in criti- cally ill patients a multinational, multicenter study. A randomized clinical trial of continuous versus intermittent dialysis for acute renal failure. Continuous venove- nous haemodiafltration versus intermittent haemodialysis for acute renal failure in patients with multiple-organ dysfunction syndrome- a multicentre randomised trial. Dialysis in intensive care unit patients with acute kidney injury: continuous therapy is superior. Effcacy and cardiovascular tolerability of extended dialysis in critically ill patients: a randomized con- trolled study. Binding to endothelial cells and macrophages leads to rapid internalization and depolymerization, whereas renal elimination is a much slower process. Given the many safe citrate protocols (see below), regional anticoagulation with heparin–protamin is nowadays not recommended anymore. They exhibit linear pharmacokinetics with stationary distribution volume and clearance processes, obviating the need of anti-Xa monitoring during continuous dosing. The drugs most frequently investigated are daltepa- rin, enoxaparin and nadroparin. This is termed heparin induced thrombocytopenia type 1, and the fall in peripheral platelet count is typically modest, and the platelet count recovers spontaneously. On the other hand heparin induced thrombocytopenia type 2 leads to marked thrombocytopenia (typically >50 % fall in peripheral platelet count) due to autoantibody mediated platelet activation which can be life-threatening, and necessitates heparin withdrawal to aid recovery [20]. Heparins are large negatively charged proteoglycans which can nonspecifically bind to proteins. In the critically ill patient there are often many other potential causes of peripheral thrombocytopenia, ranging from reduced platelet production to increased consumption [23]. The lower the platelets count the greater the risk of thrombosis and need for systemic anticoagulation. Typically thrombocytopenia starts to recover within 72 h fol- lowing heparin withdrawal, and if there is no response to heparin withdrawal, then an alternative explanation for thrombocytopenia should be considered. Currently systemic anticoagulation options include the direct thrombin inhibitor argatroban, and the hepa- rinoids, danaparoid and fondaparinux [25, 26]. Both danaparoid and fondaparinux are renally excreted and accumulate in patients with acute kidney injury and chronic kid- ney disease. Once the platelet count has recovered to >150,000 × 106/l, then warfarin therapy can be considered, as there is a risk of precipitating skin gangrene if warfarin ther- apy is started before the platelet count has recovered. Argatroban prolongs the pro- thrombin time, and therefore caution is required when converting patients from intravenous argatroban to oral warfarin therapy. Key Messages Heparin Induced Thrombocytopenia • Consider heparin induced thrombocytopenia in any patient with a 50 % fall in peripheral platelet count after starting heparin within the previous 10 days. At higher infusion doses it is also a potent smooth muscle relaxant and vasodilator. It is produced primarily in the endo- thelial and smooth muscle cells of blood vessels. Prostacyclin has a short half-life of 2–3 min with a clinical effect on end-organs and platelets of approximately 30 min [27 , 28]. Since prostacyclin exerts its effect on platelet function, it unlikely to be of signifi- cant value in patients with severe thrombocytopenia. Although regional citrate anticoagulation has been shown to be more effective in maintaining hemofilter patency, its use is often not possible as these patients are at risk of citrate accumulation as citrate is primarily metabolized in the liver [33]. In this difficult clinical situation, the use of prostacyclin may be valuable in prolonging hemofilter life without adding extra risk of bleeding [34]. It must be infused via a separate infusion line to avoid inactivation by acidic drugs such as catecholamine vasopressor agents. A similar issue may be seen using other infusion pumps that use peristaltic mechanisms. Since prostacyclin does not interfere with the coagula- tion systems, there is no simple clinical means of readily monitoring and titrating the infusion dose although thromboelastography could be used for this purpose [27]. It has been shown to extend hemofilter survival, par- ticularly when used in combination with low dose heparin [22–24 ]. The use of prostacyclin combined with regional anticoagulation with prefilter heparin and postfilter protamine has been studied in a prospective randomized trial and provided excellent filter survival and minimal bleeding when compared with conventional heparin [11]. The main side effect of prostacyclin is hypotension caused by vasodilatation which may be managed by ensuring adequate fluid volume status, by reducing the rate of infusion or by titrating a vasopressor infusion. Part of the citrate is removed by dialysis or filtration, the remains enter the systemic circulation. Citrate is rapidly metabolized in the mitochondria, the che- lated calcium is released and the lost calcium is replaced. Citrate therefore provides regional anticoagulation and does not increase the risk of bleeding. The buffer strength is equivalent to 3 mmol bicarbonate per mmol citrate if all cations are sodium (trisodium citrate) and less so if part of the cations are hydrogen (citric acid). Citrate anticoagulation is better tolerated than heparin, and is associated with less bleeding and generally longer circuit survival. Its main risk is accumulation due to decreased metabolism as a result of liver failure or systemic hypoperfusion. Accumulation is characterized by a decrease in iCa, a rise in total Ca and metabolic acidosis.

Dysphagia purchase epitol 100 mg with mastercard, which may be recognized clinically as an accumulation of food under the tongue discount 100 mg epitol fast delivery, can be an indication of rhamphothecal dys- function purchase epitol 100mg with amex. The Oropharynx and Salivary Glands Anatomy and Physiology49 discount epitol 100 mg visa,101 Birds lack an oropharyngeal isthmus, and the oral and pharyngeal cavities are combined to form an oropharynx. The walls of the oropharynx contain numerous mucus-secreting salivary glands (Figure 19. The palate contains a median fissure called the choana, which connects the sinuses to the glottis. Just caudal to the choana is the infundibular cleft, which is the common opening of the auditory tubes. Swal- with a nine-month history of progressive sneezing and nasal dis- lowing involves a rapid rostrocaudal movement of the charge. The feathers around the beak were moist from a serous tongue and the larynx, assisted by sticky saliva and nasal discharge. The rhinotheca had a deep groove that extended from the nostril to the rostral commissure of the upper beak caudally directed papilla on the tongue, laryngeal (arrows). During swallowing, the choana, layer of the rhinotheca had been involved in a disease process for infundibular cleft and glottis are closed. A mixed population of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria were cul- glands secrete mucus and, in some species, amylase. The bird responded to nasal flushing, During the breeding season, the salivary gland of systemic antibiotics, frequent exposure to fresh air and sunlight swifts temporarily enlarges to produce an adhesive and being removed from a smoke-filled environment. The nests of some of the cave swiftlets of Southeast Asia are made entirely vitamin D and calcium deficiencies. The Grey at the commissure of the beak have been described Jay produces large quantities of mucus that are with trichotecene mycotoxicosis, avian poxvirus and formed into boluses and stored on the sides of trees trichomoniasis (cockatiels). Diagnosis can be achieved by identifying elementary bodies (Bollinger bodies) in impression smears prepared from lesions and stained with Wright’s stain or by the Gimenez method. Histologic identification of basophilic and eos- inophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies is suggestive. A diagnosis can be made by staining suspected material with the Gram’s or Ziehl-Neelsen methods (see Table 19. A case of malignant fibrohistiosarcoma located on the tip of the tongue in a seven-year-old Brown-throated Conure was successfully removed by radiosurgery. The tongue, pharynx, esophagus and ingluvies of Falconi- depressor mandibulae muscles (arrows) have been transected bi- laterally to allow the jaws to be opened, revealing the 1) upper formes, Psittaciformes, Galliformes, Passeriformes beak, 2) openings of the seromucous glands, 3) choana, 4) rima and Anseriformes. Abscesses occur in multiple locations includ- ing a) perichoanal, b) pharyngeal, c) periglottal, d) lingual, e) of the beak and diphtheritic membranes in the phar- lateral-ventral lingual and f) sublingual tissues. In in some passerine chicks is brightly colored, with Strigiformes, Synhimanthus (Dispharynx) falconis distinctive markings that disappear when the chick has been reported in the oropharynx. Lesions containing the adult Oropharyngeal Diseases nematodes can be found in the mouth, esophagus and crop. Oral cavity Ulcerative, necrotic, diphtheritic Most species, particularly neonates, Esophagus immunosuppressed animals Duck enteritis virus Oral cavity Ulcerative Ducks Sublingual salivary glands Herpesvirus Oropharynx, Esophagus Diphtheritic Owls Proventriculus Lice Oral cavity Stomatitis Penguins (Piagetiella peralis) Leeches Nasal cavity, Conjunctiva Hyperemia at attachment site Anseriformes (Theromyzon spp. Tongue, Frenulum Granulomas Psittaciformes, Falconiformes Hard palate Galliformes Neoplasias All locations Masses, ulcerative Most species Papillomas Oropharynx, Esophagus Masses Psittaciformes Proventriculus Pigeon herpesvirus Pharynx, Esophagus Diphtheritic Pigeons Poxvirus Mouth Diphtheritic Galliformes, Psittaciformes, Esophagus Passeriformes, Raptors, Columbiformes Trematodes Oral cavity Stomatitis Ciconiiformes (Cathaemasia spp. Some authors suggest that hypovitaminosis A is un- Hypovitaminosis A likely in pigeons because these birds efficiently me- tabolize this vitamin. Affected birds are usually fed all-seed diets with a large percentage of sunflower the condition progresses, the duct systems fill with seeds. Treatment should include parenteral vitamin masses of degenerate lymphoid and inflammatory A and the use of a formulated diet. Mucosal lesions that appear similar to those caused Lesions associated with hypovitaminosis A in galli- by hypovitaminosis A have been described on the naceous birds first appear in the pharynx and are palate of pigeons and are referred to as sialoliths (see largely confined to the mucous glands and their Color 13). The epithelium is replaced by a stratified substrate mixed with cellular debris are clinically squamous epithelium that occludes the ducts of the recognized in approximately one percent of pigeons. Fish bones may lodge in the pharynx or Foreign Bodies proximal part of the esophagus causing dysphagia. A thorough oropharyngeal examination and Stomatitis radiographs may reveal the foreign body. Stomatitis in birds has been associated with the consumption of hot foods, ingestion of oil and inges- A string looped around the base of the tongue and tion of caustic substances. Beak ne- can become lodged around the tongue, causing avas- crosis has been described in pigeons and gallinaceous cular necrosis. The bird’s feathers were in poor condition, and the bird appeared to be hungry but would eat reluctantly. On physical examination, the defect in the palatine area of the beak appeared to contain a foreign body. The splinter was removed and the wound was accumulate in the damaged tissues and create a nidus for secon- debrided and flushed. In this Umbrella Cockatoo, days of presentation, and it began topreen normally within a week. The grad- Lacerations of the Tongue ual accumulation of fine particles of food along the Lacerations of the tongue have been encountered in inner edge of the lower beak leads to secondary infec- psittacine birds and may be due to mate-induced tion and necrosis of the beak. Feeding pelleted ra- trauma, automutilation during the excitement phase tions prevents the problem. The tongue of turkey of post-anesthetic recovery or gnawing on sharp ob- poults fed a finely ground mash may be curled back- jects. The tongue is highly vascular and bleeds pro- ward by an accumulation of food on the floor of the fusely if damaged. Many trichotecenes, notably T toxin, can cause caus-2 tic injury to the alimentary mucosa. Yellow erosive Glossitis Gelatinosa Circumscripta and exudative plaques with underlying ulcers lo- A gelatinous mass may be found on the dorsal aspect cated near the salivary duct openings on the palate, of the tongue in five- to twelve-week-old ducklings tongue and buccal floor are characteristic lesions. The precise etiology is undetermined, Thick crusts of exudate may accumulate along the 103 but a multi-deficient diet has been suggested. Experimental transmission occurs by inocu- lation of tissue suspensions and by direct contact. Moist, slick mucosal membranes have been described 31,49,101 Anatomy and Physiology in pheasants with Newcastle disease virus and in chronic cholera. The esophagus lies immediately under the skin and to the right of the trachea (see Color 13). From a clinical per- spective, the anatomy of the avian esophagus allows for easy introduc- tion of instruments or endoscopes for foreign body removal from the esophagus, crop and proventriculus. In most birds, the esophagus is di- vided by the crop or ingluvies (some birds do not have a crop) into a cervi- cal and a thoracic component. In Galliformes and Falconiformes, the crop forms a ventral enlarge- ment of the esophagus at the tho- racic inlet.

Migraine Migraine is a common and sometimes incapacitating disorder order epitol 100mg without a prescription, affecting approx 20% of women and 15% of men at some time in their lives (94) purchase 100mg epitol fast delivery. Anxiety and irrita- bility are common early in the attack and are often followed by drowsiness and lethargy discount 100 mg epitol mastercard. Cerebration is often slowed with poor concentration purchase epitol 100mg online, and there may be marked impairment of memory (88). Detainees who claim that they suffered a migraine attack at or around the time of the alleged offense should be questioned closely about any cogni- tive impairment during previous attacks. However, it should be recognized that the pattern of any such impairment can change from attack to attack in the same person. Hypothyroidism A detainee who is being adequately treated for myxedema poses no par- ticular problem for the physician assessing fitness for interview. However, an individual with undiagnosed or undertreated hypothyroidism may exhibit mental manifestations that are as important as the physical. The typical pic- ture is of mental lethargy, general dulling of the personality, and slowing of all cognitive functions. In particular, the patient with hypothyroidism shows deficits in memory, abstraction, conceptual organization, and mathematical ability (95). Diabetes Mellitus Although confusion is a prominent feature in patients who are slipping into hyperglycemic coma, this condition is rarely seen in police custody. Ques- tions relating to fitness for interview and the potential reliability of a detainee’s confession are more likely to involve those with hypoglycemia. Episodes of hypoglycemia are associated with irritability, anxiety, and panic in the early stages. As the episode develops, the individual becomes disinhibited and may exhibit childish or aggressive behavior that often mimics drunkenness. Disorientation and mental confusion are common and, in severe cases, the person may pass into a coma. Anybody suffering from hypoglyce- mia will prove to be a poor witness to events that occur during the episode. Most will have complete amnesia for the content of the attack and occasionally for an additional period before the attack occurred when their behavior will have appeared to be normal (96). The doctor should take a clear history of any hypoglycemic episodes that may have occurred before arrest and should con- sider checking the blood sugar of any diabetic about to be interviewed by the police. The manifestations of hypoglycemia with subsequent impaired intel- lectual function are extremely variable, and it has been recommended that the blood sugar should be kept at 6 mmol/L or more if a person with diabetes person is to give a statement or be interviewed (97). It has been estimated that 5–8% of patients aged 65 yr and older suffer from dementia to an appre- ciable degree, with the proportion probably exceeding 20% in 80-yr-olds (98). However, in many of these patients, dementia is not recognized until there is some form of crisis in their lives. Such a crisis may be precipitated by sudden illness, bereavement, or police arrest. Individuals seem able to develop strate- gies to cope with their daily tasks and thus appear to function normally until the crisis disrupts the status quo and exposes the degree of their dementia (99). Care of Detainees 229 Although there are many different causes of dementia, the clinical picture remains broadly similar, with any variation depending mainly on the age of onset of the illness, premorbid personality, and intelligence. In the custodial situation, the doctor is likely to encounter only those at an early stage of the disease. This is characterized by impaired memory, loss of the sense of time, and spatial disorientation, all of which can distort a suspect’s recollection of events. This distortion may be compounded by the lack of judgment that is frequently displayed by those with dementia and that can cause the suspect to misjudge the importance of providing reliable testimony (88). Therefore, it is important that the doctor be aware of the possibility that an elderly suspect may be suffering from dementia, even when there are reports of apparently normal social functioning before arrest. In such circumstances, recognition of the de- mentia can be facilitated by using a standard test of cognitive function, such as the Mini-Mental State Examination Score (see Appendix 4). It is called “mini” because it concentrates only on the cognitive aspects of mental functioning and excludes questions concerning mood, abnormal mental expe- riences, and the form of thinking. A score of 24 out of 30 was originally sug- gested as the lower limit of normal, but it has been repeatedly shown that performance on even this simple test is influenced considerably by age and by educational attainment. Hence, a well-educated young adult should perform flawlessly, whereas a normal elderly subject who left school at age 14 may score as low as 22 or 23. Given this proviso, the Mini-Mental State Examina- tion is useful in quantifying cognitive impairment and is particularly useful for grading and monitoring the severity of dementia. British Medical Association’s Medical Ethics Committee and Association of Fo- rensic Physicians. A tiered health care system for persons in police custody-the use of a forensic nursing service. East Kilbride, Education and Research Committee of the Asso- ciation of Forensic Physicians, 2004. The role of cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive (Histoacryl blue) in forensic medical practice. Triage, assessment, inves- tigation and early management of head injury in infants, children and adults. Education and Research Com- mittee of the Association of Forensic Physicians, East Kilbride, 2004. Guidance for Clinical Health Care Workers: Protection Against Infection with Blood-borne Viruses. A Report on Violence at Work and its Impact on the Medical Profession within Hospitals and the Community. Education and Research Sub-Committee of the Association of Police Surgeons, Harrogate, North Yorkshire, 1997. The True Events Surrounding the Convictions and Trials of the Guildford Four and the Maguire Seven. Individual differences and experimentation: comple- mentary approaches to interrogative suggestibility. Fitness to be interviewed and the appropriate adult scheme: a survey of police surgeons’ attitudes. Hangover effects on aircraft pilots 14 hours after alcohol ingestion: a preliminary report. The effects of alcohol withdrawal on mental state, interrogative suggestibility and compliance: an experimental study. Alcohol and drug intoxication during police interrogation and the reasons why suspects confess to the police. Persons at Risk During Interviews in Police Custody: The Identifica- tion of Vulnerabilities. There is a constant need for information as new organisms emerge, existing ones develop resistance to current drugs or vaccines, and changes in epidemiology and prevalence occur. Population migration and the relatively low cost of flying means that unfamiliar infectious diseases may be brought into industrialized countries.

Investigation of organic constitutents and bioactivity of the leaves of Vitex trifolia Linn cheap 100 mg epitol amex. In the present work cheap 100 mg epitol mastercard, investigation of some phyto organic constituents and some biological activities such as antimicrobial and antimalarial activities were carried out on the leaves of two selected medicinal plants: Vitex trifolia Linn generic epitol 100mg without a prescription. These plants are traditionally used as remedy for the treatment of sinusitis and malaria generic 100mg epitol visa. The identifies of all of the isolated compounds were determined by measurement of their melting points, some physico-chemical properties and also by modern spectroscopic techniques. All of these extracts were tested on 6 strains of pathogenic microorganisms such as Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumalis, Candida albican and Mycobacterium tuberculosis by agar plate diffusion method. The antimicrobial activity of isolated compounds such as vitexilactone, p-hydroxy benzoic acid, a mixture of fatty acid ethyl esters (E) and n-hexadecanoic acid were also determined by agar plate diffusion method against S. Among them, vitexilactone and p-hydroxy benzoic acid and mixture of fatty acid esters (E) were found to exhibit the antimicrobial activity effectively against the S. Therefore, from these observations it can be inferred that vitexilactone and p-hydroxy benzoic acid, oil mixture (E) and n-hexadecanoic acid can be used in the treatment of diseases namely; sinusitis, skin infections, respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, external ear infections, septicemia, tuberculosis and leprosy etc. The morphological and microscopical characters of the leaves, stems and roots were also studied. In morphological study, the plant is annual herb; the stem is ascending or spreading, simple or much branched. Microscopical characters of leaves, stems and roots were also undertaken and examination of powdered drug were carried out for standardization of drugs. In microscopical study, the epidermal cell of lower and upper surface of lamina were wavy and covered with striated cuticle. Calcium oxalate crystals formed as bundles of raphide present in spongy layers of leaves, cortex layers of leaves, cortex layers of stems and peridem layer of roots. The collected plants were dried, powdered and stored in airtight bottle for further use. The preliminary phytochemical examination was carried out to examine the chemical constituents. This examination showed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, amino acid, phenolic compounds, reducing sugar, saponins, steroid, tannins and terpenoids. Physicochemical characterization such as moisture content, total ash, acid insoluble ash, water soluble ash, polar to non-polar soluble matter content were carried out to determine the soluble matter content. Isolation of chemical constituents of the plant extract was carried out by silica gel column chromatography and selective solvent solubility method. Various solvent extracts of plant and isolated compounds (oleanolic acid and asperuloside) were tested against different microorganisms for their antimicrobial activity by using agar well diffusion method. It was found that isolated compounds showed more significant antimicrobial activity than different solvent extract. The acute toxicity test was carried out with 70% ethanolic extract of Su–la–na-pha by using albino mice. It was observed that the 70% ethanolic extract was free from acute toxicity or harmful effect during observation period of 2 weeks even with maximum permissible dose of 16g/kg. Using albino rats at 6g/kg dose tested diuretic activity of 70% ethanolic extract of O. Investigation of some bioactive and bioactive constituents of Achyranthes aspera Linn. Thesis, PhD (Chemistry), University of Yangon; 2008 The present research deals with the investigation of some bioactive constituents from the roots of Achyranthes aspera Linn. The acute toxicity study on aqueous and 70% ethanolic extracts of Achyranthes aspera Linn. In vivo investigation of diuretic activity of aqueous and 70% ethanolic extract of two selected plants was systematically studied on albino rats. The maximum effects of aqueous and ethanolic extract of both plants were observed at 2hr of the experiment (p<0. The isolated compound E (vitexin rhamnoside) also exhibited significant diuretic activity at the dose of 100mg/kg body weight and the maximum effect was observed at 2hr and 3hr of the study (p< 0. Among all the test samples, the isolated compound E (vitexin rhamnoside) showed the highest radical scavenging activity at the dry amount (100µg-400µg). Investigation on some chemical constituents and biological activities of Kaempferia parviflora Wall. Isolation was furnished by silica gel column chromatographic separation of ethanol extract followed by repeated crystallization. On the basis of spectroscopic measurements, compound A (3,7-dimethoxy-5-hydroxy flavone) (0. The relaxation effect on smooth muscle of isolated rat ileum induced contraction by carbachol (20µg/ml bc) was investigated in vitro by using different concentration of ethanol extract and some isolated compounds of K. Similarly, anti-spasmodic effect of compound E was found to be reduced the height of contraction to 1. Eleven indigenous plants were screened for in vitro anthelminthic activity against Ascaris suum, namely Albizia lebbeck (Ah-nyar-kok-ko), Butea frondosa (Pauk), Carica papaya (Thin-baw), Desmodium triquetrum (Lauk-thay-ywet), Yin-pya (May-myo), Euphorbia hirta (Kywe-kyaung-hminsa), Hiptage medablota, Lantana aculeata (Sein-na-ban), Lawsonia alba (Dan), Prunus persica (Met-mon) and Quisqualis indica (Dawe-hmaing). Plant extracts were screened generally by a modification of the method of Sen and Hawking (1960). The extracts, again at a dose level of 8 mg/ml, produced muscular paralysis of the worms within 24 hr. The results were compared with those produced by the classical anthelminthic drugs laevo-tetramisole (Ketrax), piperazine hexahydrate and oil of chenopodium. The subjects were preliminary screened by routine examination of a stool specimen, including an egg-count in positive cases. Children in the 1 to 12 yr age group with 800 eggs/50mg stool were selected for clinical trial, comparing their potency with that of two classical anthelminthic agents namely laev-tetramisole (Ketrax, Imperial Chemical Industries Limited, England) and piperazine adipate. Control groups were administered the vehicle honey as a placebo, and a saline purgative. No untoward side effects were noted in any patient severe enough to warrant withdrawal of either test agent. Isolation and bioactivities of some organic compounds in the stem bark of Sanmarae samanea (Jaeq) Merr. In the present research work, two selected medicinal plants namely, Sanmarae samanea (Jaeq) Merr. Biological activities such as anti-microbial activity, anti pyretic activity, anti-oxidant activity, acute toxicity test and pesticidal activity were carried out. Antimicrobial screening of various plant extracts of both plants was done by agar well diffusion method against six strains; Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus pumalis, Candida albicans, Escherichia coil species. In the investigation of antimicrobial activity of isolated compounds A, B and C it can be seen that all of these compounds inhibited the all six strains microorganisms with the inhibibition zone diameters ranging between (11-15 mm).

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